Ernst Ingmar Bergman (Swedish pronunciation:Â [ËÉªÅmar ËbÃ¦rjman]; 14 July 1918Â â" 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer and producer who worked in film, television, and theatre. He is recognized as one of the most accomplished and influential auteurs of all time and is most famous for films such as The Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawberries (1957), Persona (1966), Cries and Whispers (1972), and Fanny and Alexander (1982).
He directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television, most of which he also wrote. He also directed over 170 plays. From 1953, he forged a powerful creative partnership with his full-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet and Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar BjÃ¶rnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in his country, and numerous films from Through a Glass Darkly (1961) onward were filmed on the island of FÃ¥rÃ¶. His work often dealt with death, illness, faith, betrayal, bleakness and insanity.
Ingmar Bergman was born in Uppsala, Sweden, the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and later chaplain to the King of Sweden, and Karin (nÃ©e Ã kerblom), a nurse who also had Walloon ancestors. He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion. His father was a conservative parish minister with strict parenting concepts. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for "infractions", such as wetting the bed. "While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened", Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica,
"I devoted my interest to the church's mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one's imagination could desireÂ â" angels, saints, dragons, prophets, devils, humans".
Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman later stated that he lost his faith at age eight and only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light in 1962. Bergmanâs interest in theatre and film began early: "At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt completely at home, he recalled. He fashioned his own scenery, marionettes, and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts."
In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer vacation with family friends. He attended a Nazi rally in Weimar at which he saw Adolf Hitler. He later wrote in Laterna Magica (The Magic Lantern) about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Adolf Hitler on the wall by his bed, and that "for many years, I was on Hitler's side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats". Bergman commented that "Hitler was unbelievably charismatic. He electrified the crowd. ... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful". Bergman did two five-month stretches of mandatory military service.
In 1937, he entered Stockholm University College (later renamed Stockholm University), to study art and literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a "genuine movie addict". At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a break with his father that lasted for years. Although he did not graduate, he wrote a number of plays, as well as an opera, and became an assistant director at a theatre. In 1942, he was given the chance to direct one of his own scripts, Casparâs Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which then offered Bergman a position working on scripts. In 1943, he married Else Fisher.
Bergmanâs film career began in 1941 with his rewriting of scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment/Frenzy (Hets), a film directed by Alf SjÃ¶berg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also given position as assistant director to the film. In his second autobiographical work, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut. The international success of this film led to Bergmanâs first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years, he wrote and directed more than a dozen films including The Devilâs Wanton/Prison (FÃ¤ngelse) in 1949 as well as The Naked Night/Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika), both from 1953.
Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende) (1955), which won for "Best poetic humour" and was nominated for the Palme dâOr at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (SmultronstÃ¤llet), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor SjÃ¶strÃ¶m. Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, he spent much of his life on the Swedish island of FÃ¥rÃ¶, where he made several films.
In the early 1960s he directed three films that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (SÃ¥som i en Spegel, 1961), Winter Light (NattvardsgÃ¤sterna, 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden, 1963). Critics created the notion that the common themes in these three films made them a trilogy or cinematic triptych. Bergman initially responded that he did not plan these three films as a trilogy and that he could not see any common motifs in them, but he later seemed to have adopted the notion, with some equivocation. In 1964 he made a parody of Fellini with All These Women (FÃ¶r att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor).
In 1966, he directed Persona, a film that he himself considered one of his most important works. While the shockingly experimental film won few awards, many consider it his masterpiece. Other notable films of the period include The Virgin Spring (JungfrukÃ¤llan, 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen, 1968), Shame (Skammen, 1968) and A Passion/The Passion of Anna (En Passion, 1969). Bergman also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett Ã¤ktenskap, 1973) and The Magic Flute (TrollflÃ¶jten, 1975).
After his arrest in 1976 for tax evasion, Bergman swore he would never again make films in Sweden. He shut down his film studio on the island of FÃ¥rÃ¶ and went into self-imposed exile. He briefly considered the possibility of working in America and his next film, The Serpentâs Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being 1971âs The Touch). This was followed a year later with a British-Norwegian co-production of Autumn Sonata (HÃ¶stsonaten, 1978) starring Ingrid Bergman. The one other film he directed was From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980) a British-German co-production.
In 1982, he temporarily returned to his homeland to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander). Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. After that he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for TV, some of these productions were later released in theatres. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old.
Bergman developed a personal "repertory company" of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, Gunnel Lindblom, Bengt Ekerot, Anders Ek, and Gunnar BjÃ¶rnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergmanâs films and one televisual film (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the 1966 film Persona), and ultimately became most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann (born 1966).
Bergman began working with Sven Nykvist, his cinematographer, in 1953. The two developed and maintained a working relationship of sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work, lacking interruption or comment until post-production discussion of the next dayâs work.
By Bergmanâs own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs. (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage, a six-episode television feature, cost only $200,000.)
Bergman usually wrote his own screenplays, thinking about them for months or years before starting the actual process of writing, which he viewed as somewhat tedious. His earlier films are carefully constructed and are either based on his plays or written in collaboration with other authors. Bergman stated that in his later works, when on occasion his actors would want to do things differently from his own intention, he would let them, noting that the results were often "disastrous" when he did not do so. As his career progressed, Bergman increasingly let his actors improvise their dialogue. In his latest films, he wrote just the ideas informing the scene and allowed his actors to determine the exact dialogue. When viewing daily rushes, Bergman stressed the importance of being critical but unemotive, claiming that he asked himself not if the work is great or terrible, but if it is sufficient or if it needs to be reshot.
Bergmanâs films usually deal with existential questions of mortality, loneliness, and religious faith. While these topics could seem cerebral, sexual desire found its way to the foreground of most of his films, whether the setting was a medieval plague (The Seventh Seal), upper-class family activity in early twentieth century Uppsala (Fanny and Alexander) or contemporary alienation (The Silence). His female characters are usually more in touch with their sexuality than the men, and unafraid to proclaim it, sometimes with breathtaking overtness (e.g., Cries and Whispers) as would define the work of "the conjurer," as Bergman called himself in a 1960 Time Magazine cover story. In an interview with Playboy in 1964, he said: "The manifestation of sex is very important, and particularly to me, for above all, I donât want to make merely intellectual films. I want audiences to feel, to sense my films. This to me is much more important than their understanding them." Film, Bergman said, was his demanding mistress.
Bergmanâs views on his career
When asked in the series of interviews later titled "Ingmar Bergman - 3 dokumentÃ¤rer om film, teater, FÃ¥rÃ¶ och livet" conducted by Marie NyrerÃ¶d for Swedish TV and released in 2004, Bergman said he held Winter Light, Persona, and Cries and Whispers in the highest regard. There he also states that he managed to push the envelope of film making in the films "Persona" and "Cries and Whispers". Bergman stated on numerous occasions (for example in the interview book Bergman on Bergman) that The Silence meant the end of the era in which religious questions were a major concern of his films. Bergman said that he would get "depressed" by his own films and could not watch them anymore. In the same interview he also states:" If there is one thing I miss about working with films, it is working with Sven" (Nykvist), his 3rd camera man.
Although Bergman was universally famous for his contribution to cinema, he was also an active and productive stage director all his life. During his studies at Stockholm University, he became active in its student theatre, where he made a name for himself early on. His first work after graduation was as a trainee-director at a Stockholm theatre. At twenty-six years, he became the youngest theatrical manager in Europe at the Helsingborg City Theatre. He stayed at Helsingborg for three years and then became the director at Gothenburg city theatre from 1946 to 1949.
He became director of the MalmÃ¶ city theatre in 1953 and remained for seven years. Many of his star actors were people with whom he began working on stage, and a number of people in the "Bergman troupe" of his 1960s films came from MalmÃ¶âs city theatre (Max von Sydow, for example). He was the director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm from 1960 to 1966 and manager from 1963 to 1966, where he began a long-time collaboration with choreographer Donya Feuer.
After Bergman left Sweden because of the tax evasion incident, he became director of the Residenz Theatre of Munich, Germany (1977â"84). He remained active in theatre throughout the 1990s and made his final production on stage with Henrik Ibsenâs The Wild Duck at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 2002. A complete list of Bergmanâs work in theatre can be found under "Stage Productions and Radio Theatre Credits" at Ingmar Bergman filmography.
Tax evasion charges
On 30 January 1976, while rehearsing August Strindbergâs Dance of Death at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, he was arrested by two plainclothes police officers and charged with income tax evasion. The impact of the event on Bergman was devastating. He suffered a nervous break-down as a result of the humiliation and was hospitalized in a state of deep depression.
The investigation was focused on an alleged 1970 transaction of 500,000 Swedish kronor (SEK) between Bergmanâs Swedish company Cinematograf and its Swiss subsidiary Persona, an entity that was mainly used for the paying of salaries to foreign actors. Bergman dissolved Persona in 1974 after having been notified by the Swedish Central Bank and subsequently reported the income. On 23 March 1976, the special prosecutor Anders Nordenadler dropped the charges against Bergman, saying that the alleged crime had no legal basis, saying it would be like bringing "charges against a person who has stolen his own car, thinking it was someone elseâs". Director General GÃ¶sta Ekman, chief of the Swedish Internal Revenue Service, defended the failed investigation, saying that the investigation was dealing with important legal material and that Bergman was treated just like any other suspect. He expressed regret that Bergman had left the country, hoping that Bergman was a "stronger" person now when the investigation had shown that he had not done any wrong.
Even though the charges were dropped, Bergman became disconsolate, fearing he would never again return to directing. Despite pleas by the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme, high public figures, and leaders of the film industry, he vowed never to work again in Sweden. He closed down his studio on the island of FÃ¥rÃ¶, suspended two announced film projects, and went into self-imposed exile in Munich, Germany. Harry Schein, director of the Swedish Film Institute, estimated the immediate damage as ten million SEK (kronor) and hundreds of jobs lost.
Although he continued to operate from Munich, by mid-1978 Bergman had overcome some of his bitterness toward the government of Sweden. In July of that year he visited Sweden, celebrating his sixtieth birthday at FÃ¥rÃ¶, and partly resumed his work as a director at Royal Dramatic Theatre. To honour his return, the Swedish Film Institute launched a new Ingmar Bergman Prize to be awarded annually for excellence in filmmaking. Still, he remained in Munich until 1984. In one of the last major interviews with Bergman, conducted in 2005 at FÃ¥rÃ¶ Island, Bergman said that despite being active during the exile, he had effectively lost eight years of his professional life.
Bergman retired from filmmaking in December 2003. He had hip surgery in October 2006 and was making a difficult recovery. He died peacefully in his sleep, at his home on FÃ¥rÃ¶, on 30 July 2007, at the age of 89, the same day that another renowned film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, also died. He was buried in the cemetery of FÃ¥rÃ¶ Church on 18 August 2007 in a private ceremony. A place in the FÃ¥rÃ¶ churchyard was prepared for him under heavy secrecy. Although he was buried on the island of FÃ¥rÃ¶, his name and date of birth were inscribed under his wifeâs name on a tomb at Roslagsbro churchyard, NorrtÃ¤lje Municipality, several years before his death.
When Bergman died, a large archive of notes was donated to the Swedish Film Institute. Among the notes are several unpublished and unfinished scripts both for stage and films, and many more ideas for works in different stages of development. A never performed play has the title KÃ¤rlek utan Ã¤lskare ("Love without lovers"), and has the note "Complete disaster!" written on the envelope; the play is about a director who disappears and an editor who tries to complete a work he has left unfinished. Other canceled projects include the script for a pornographic film which Bergman abandoned since he did not think it was alive enough, a play about a cannibal, some loose scenes set inside a womb, a film about the life of Jesus, a film about The Merry Widow, and a play with the title FrÃ¥n sperm till spÃ¶ke ("From sperm to spook"). The Swedish director Marcus Lindeen went through the material, and inspired by KÃ¤rlek utan Ã¤lskare he took samples from many of the works and turned them into a play, titled Arkivet fÃ¶r orealiserbara drÃ¶mmar och visioner ("The archive for unrealisable dreams and visions"). Lindeenâs play premiered on 28 May 2012 at the Stockholm City Theatre.
Bergman was married five times:
- 25 March 1943Â â" 1945, to Else Fisher, choreographer and dancer (divorced). Children:
- Lena Bergman, actress, born 1943.
- 22 July 1945Â â" 1950, to Ellen LundstrÃ¶m, choreographer and film director (divorced). Children:
- Eva Bergman, film director, born 1945,
- Jan Bergman, film director (1946â"2000), and
- the twins Mats and Anna Bergman, both actors and film directors, born in 1948.
- 1951Â â" 1959, to Gun Grut, journalist (divorced). Children:
- Ingmar Bergman Jr., airline captain, born 1951.
- 1959Â â" 1969, to KÃ¤bi Laretei, concert pianist (divorced). Children:
- Daniel Bergman, film director, born 1962.
- 11 November 1971Â â" 20 May 1995, to Ingrid von Rosen (maiden name Karlebo). Children:
- Maria von Rosen, author, born 1959.
The first four marriages ended in divorce, while the last ended when his wife Ingrid died of stomach cancer in 1995, aged 65. Aside from his marriages, Bergman had romantic relationships with actresses Harriet Andersson (1952â"55), Bibi Andersson (1955â"59), and Liv Ullmann (1965â"70). He was the father of writer Linn Ullmann with Liv Ullmann. In all, Bergman had nine children, one of whom predeceased him. Bergman was eventually married to all of the mothers except Liv Ullmann, but his daughter with his last wife, Ingrid von Rosen, was born twelve years before their marriage.
Critique and influence
Many filmmakers have praised Bergman and some have also cited his work as an influence on their own:
- Andrei Tarkovsky held Bergman in very high regard, noting him and Robert Bresson as his two favourite filmmakers, stating: "I am only interested in the views of two people: one is called Bresson and one called Bergman." Such was Bergmanâs influence, Tarkovskyâs last film was made in Sweden with Sven Nykvist, Bergmanâs longtime cinematographer, and several of Bergmanâs favoured actors including Erland Josephson. Bergman likewise had great respect for Tarkovsky, stating: "Tarkovsky for me is the greatest director."
- Pedro AlmodÃ³var
- Jean-Luc Godard
- Robert Altman
- Olivier Assayas
- Francis Ford Coppola stated: "My all-time favorite because he embodies passion, emotion and has warmth."
- Guillermo del Toro said: "Bergman as a fabulistÂ â" my favoriteÂ â" is absolutely mesmerizing."
- Asghar Farhadi
- Todd Field stated: "He was our tunnel man building the aqueducts of our cinematic collective unconscious."
- Woody Allen referred to Bergman as "probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera".
- Krzysztof KieÅlowski stated: "This man is one of the few film directorsÂ â" perhaps the only one in the worldÂ â" to have said as much about human nature as Dostoyevsky or Camus."
- Stanley Kubrick stated: "I believe Ingmar Bergman, Vittorio De Sica and Federico Fellini are the only three filmmakers in the world who are not just artistic opportunists. By this I mean they donât just sit and wait for a good story to come along and then make it. They have a point of view which is expressed over and over and over again in their films, and they themselves write or have original material written for them."
- Ang Lee stated: "For me the filmmaker Bergman is the greatest actor of all..."
- FranÃ§ois Ozon
- Park Chan-wook
- Ãric Rohmer stated: "The Seventh Seal is the most beautiful film ever."
- Marjane Satrapi
- Mamoru Oshii
- Paul Schrader stated: "I would not have made any of my films or written scripts such as Taxi Driver had it not been for Ingmar Bergman. What he has left is a legacy greater than any other director. I think the extraordinary thing that Bergman will be remembered for, other than his body of work, was that he probably did more than anyone to make cinema a medium of personal and introspective value."
- Martin Scorsese said: "I guess Iâd put it like this: if you were alive in the â50s and the â60s and of a certain age, a teenager on your way to becoming an adult, and you wanted to make films, I donât see how you couldnât be influenced by Bergman. You would have had to make a conscious effort, and even then, the influence would have snuck through."
- Steven Spielberg stated: "His love for the cinema almost gives me a guilty conscience."
- Satyajit Ray stated: "Itâs Bergman whom I continue to be fascinated by. I think heâs remarkable. I envy his stock company, because given actors like that one could do extraordinary things."
- AndrÃ© TÃ©chinÃ©
- Liv Ullmann
- Woody Allen said: For me it was Wild Strawberries. Then The Seventh Seal and The Magician. That whole group of films that came out then told us that Bergman was a magical filmmaker. There had never been anything like it, this combination of intellectual artist and film technician. His technique was sensational.
- Lars von Trier said: I have seen all his movies, he is a great source of inspiration to me.
A Bergman-themed parody spoofs the allegory of cheating death (Bergmanâs The Seventh Seal) in the sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live season 1 (ep.Â 23, 24 July 1976). The sketch, titled âSwedish Movieâ, is somberly narrated in the third-person by a Swedish-speaking Death (Tom Schiller) with English subtitles scrolling. The baleful voice-over dialogue, revealed to be emanating from the apparition of Death personified, imposes upon dreamily preoccupied lovers Sven (Chevy Chase) and Inger (Louise Lasser) who send a not-so-silently jeering Death out for pizza.
Monty Pythonâs The Meaning of Life includes a sketch based on The Seventh Seal in which middle-class weekenders at an isolated farmhouse are visited by The Grim Reaper.
A television spoof of Persona appeared in an episode of the Canadian comedy series SCTV in the late 1970s. SCTV later aired another Bergman parody, this time of Scenes From A Marriage that featured actor Martin Short portraying comedian Jerry Lewis as the star of a fictional Bergman film called Scenes From An Idiot's Marriage.
Bill and Tedâs Bogus Journey includes a further spoof on the theme of playing games with Death from Bergmanâs The Seventh Seal. Bill and Ted are set to play a game with Death. Rather than chess, they play checkers. When Bill and Ted win, Death challenges them to a best of three match, wherein they play Battleship and other games from popular culture.
The Muppets franchise had a spoof of Bergmanâs style in a segment entitled "Silent Strawberries" from the TV special, The Muppets Go to the Movies.
In 1971, Bergman received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award at the Academy Awards ceremony. Three of his films won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The list of his nominations and awards follows:
- Won: Best Foreign Film The Virgin Spring (JungfrukÃ¤llan), 1960
- Won: Best Foreign Film Through a Glass Darkly (SÃ¥som i en spegel) (1961)
- Won: Best Foreign Film Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander) (1983)
- Nominated: Best Original Screenplay, Wild Strawberries (SmultronstÃ¤llet), 1957
- Nominated: Best Original Screenplay Through a Glass Darkly, 1961
- Nominated: Best Original Screenplay, Cries and Whispers (Viskningar och rop), 1974
- Nominated: Best Picture, Cries and Whispers (Viskningar och rop), 1974
- Nominated: Best Director, Cries and Whispers (Viskningar och rop), 1974
- Nominated: Best Director, Face to Face (Ansikte mot ansikte), 1977
- Nominated: Best Original Screenplay, Autumn Sonata (HÃ¶stsonaten), 1979
- Nominated: Best Original Screenplay, Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander), 1983
- Nominated: Best Director, Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander), 1983
- Nominated: Best Film from any Source, The Magician (Ansiktet), 1960
- Nominated: Best Foreign Film, Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander), 1984
Berlin Film Festival
- Won: Golden Bear for Best Film, Wild Strawberries (SmultronstÃ¤llet), 1957
- Nominated: Golden Bear for Best Film, Through a Glass Darkly (SÃ¥som i en spegel), 1961
- Won: OCIC Prize, Through a Glass Darkly, 1961
- Nominated: Best Foreign Film, The Magic Flute (TrollflÃ¶jten), 1976
- Nominated: Best Foreign Film, Autumn Sonata (HÃ¶stsonaten), 1979
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander), 1984
- Nominated: Best European Film, Saraband, 2005
Cannes Film Festival
- Won: Best Poetic Humour, Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende), 1955
- Nominated: Golden Palm Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende), 1955
- Won: Jury Special prize, The Seventh Seal (Det Sjunde inseglet), 1957
- Nominated: Golden Palm, The Seventh Seal (Det Sjunde inseglet), 1957
- Won: Best Director, Brink of Life (NÃ¤ra livet), 1958
- Nominated: Golden Palm, Brink of Life (NÃ¤ra livet), 1958
- Won: Special Mention, The Virgin Spring (JungfrukÃ¤llan), 1960
- Nominated: Golden Palm, The Virgin Spring (JungfrukÃ¤llan), 1960
- Won: Technical Grand Prize, Cries and Whispers (Viskningar och rop), 1972
- Won: Palm of Palms, 1997
- Won: Prize of the Ecumenical Jury (special award for his whole works), 1998
Golden Globe Awards
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Wild Strawberries (SmultronstÃ¤llet), 1960
- Won: Best Foreign Film, The Virgin Spring, 1961
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Through A Glass Darkly, 1962
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Scenes from a Marriage, 1975
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Face to Face, 1976
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Autumn Sonata, 1978
- Won: Best Foreign Film, Fanny and Alexander, 1984
- Nominated: Best Foreign Film, Shame, 1968
- Nominated: Best Foreign Film, Cries and Whispers, 1973
- Won: Best Film, The Silence, 1963
- Won: Best Director, The Silence, 1963
- Won: Best Film, Persona, 1966
- Won: Best Film, Cries and Whispers, 1972
- Won: Best Film, Fanny and Alexander, 1982
- Won: Best Director, Fanny and Alexander, 1982
- Won: Best Screenplay, The Best Intentions, 1992.
Other awards and honours
- Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1961
- The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, 1995
- Commandeur de la LÃ©gion dâhonneur, 1985
- On 6 April 2011, the Bank of Sweden announced that Bergmanâs portrait will feature on the new 200 kronor banknote, to be issued in 2014 or 2015.
- Ingmar Bergman.The Image Maker, Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow, 2012
- Ingmar Bergman: The Man Who Asked Hard Questions, Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow, 2012
- Cinema of Sweden
- List of film collaborations
- Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman. By Stig BjÃ¶rkman, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima; translated by Paul Britten Austin. Simon & Schuster, New York. Swedish edition copyright 1970; English translation 1973.
- Filmmakers on filmmaking: the American Film Institute seminars on motion pictures and television (edited by Joseph McBride). Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1983.
- Images: my life in film, Ingmar Bergman. Translated by Marianne Ruuth. New York, Arcade Pub., 1994, ISBN 1-55970-186-2
- The Magic Lantern, Ingmar Bergman. Translated by Joan Tate New York, Viking Press, 1988, ISBN 0-670-81911-5
- The Demons of Modernity: Ingmar Bergman and European Cinema, John Orr, Berghahn Books, 2014.
- Ingmar Bergman at the Internet Movie Database
- Ingmar Bergman at the Swedish Film Database
- Ingmar Bergman at the TCM Movie Database
- Ingmar Bergman Face to Face
- The Ingmar Bergman Foundation
- Ingmar Bergman all posters
- Bergmanorama: The magic works of Ingmar Bergman
- The Guardian/NFT interview with Liv Ullmann by Shane Danielson, 23 January 2001
- Xan Brooks reports on Bergmanâs interview for Reuters, The Guardian, 12 December 2001
- Bergman Week
- DVD Beaverâs Directorâs Chair on Bergman, with links to DVD and Blu-ray comparisons of his major films
- Ingmar Bergman Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
- Ingmar Bergman Site
- Collection of interviews with Bergman