Novalis (German: [noËvaËlÉªs]) was the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (May 2, 1772 â" March 25, 1801), a poet, author, and philosopher of early German Romanticism. Hardenberg's professional work and university background, he had studied mineralogy and managed salt mines in Saxony, was often ignored by his contemporary readers. The first studies showing important relations between his literary and professional works started in the 1960s.
Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg was born in 1772 at Oberwiederstedt manor (now part of Arnstein, Saxony-Anhalt), in the Harz mountains. The family seat was a manorial estate, not simply a stately home. Novalis descended from ancient, Low German nobility. Different lines of the family include such important, influential magistrates and ministry officials as the Prussian chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg (1750â"1822). An oil painting and a christening cap commonly assigned to Novalis are his only possessions now extant. In the church in Wiederstedt, he was christened Georg Philipp Friedrich. He spent his childhood on the family estate and used it as the starting point for his travels into the Harz mountains.
Novalis' father, the estate owner and salt-mine manager Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg (1738â"1814), was a strictly pietistic man who had become a member of the Moravian (Herrnhuter) Church. His second marriage was to Auguste Bernhardine von BÃ¶ltzig (1749â"1818), who gave birth to eleven children: their second child was Georg Philipp Friedrich, who later named himself Novalis.
At first, Novalis was taught by private tutors. He attended the Lutheran grammar school in Eisleben, where he acquired skills in rhetoric and ancient literature, common parts of the education of this time. From his twelfth year, he was in the charge of his uncle Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Hardenberg at his stately home in Lucklum.
Novalis studied Law from 1790 to 1794 at Jena, Leipzig and Wittenberg. He passed his exams with distinction. During his studies, he attended Schiller's lectures on history and befriended Schiller during his illness. Novalis also met Goethe, Herder and Jean Paul, and befriended Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and the brothers Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel.
In October 1794, Novalis worked as actuary for August Coelestin Just, who was not only his superior, but also his friend and, later, his biographer. During this time, Novalis met the 12-year-old Sophie von KÃ¼hn (1782â"1797). On March 15, 1795, when Sophie was 13 years old, the two became engaged to marry. The following January, Novalis was appointed auditor to the salt works at WeiÃenfels.
In the period 1795â"1796, Novalis concerned himself with the scientific doctrine of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, which greatly influenced his world view. He not only read Fichte's philosophies but also developed Fichte's concepts further, transforming Fichte's Nicht-Ich (German "not I") to a Du ("you"), an equal subject to the Ich ("I"). This was the starting point for Novalis' Liebesreligion ("religion of love").
The cruelly early death of Sophie in March 1797 affected Novalis deeply and permanently. She was only 15 years old, and the two had not married yet.
That same year, Novalis entered the Mining Academy of Freiberg in Saxony, a leading academy of science, to study geology under Professor Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750â"1817), who befriended him. During Novalis' studies in Freiberg, he immersed himself in a wide range of studies, including mining, mathematics, chemistry, biology, history and, not least, philosophy. It was here that he collected materials for his famous encyclopaedia project. Similar to other German authors of the Romantic age, his work in the mining industry, which was undergoing then the first steps to industrialization, was closely connected with his literary work.
Novalis' first fragments were published in 1798 in the AthenÃ¤um, a magazine edited by the brothers Schlegel, who were also part of the early Romantic movement. Novalis' first publication was entitled BlÃ¼thenstaub (Pollen) and saw the first appearance of his pseudonym, "Novalis". In July 1799, he became acquainted with Ludwig Tieck, and that autumn he met other authors of so-called "Jena Romanticism".
Novalis became engaged for the second time in December 1798. His fiancÃ©e was Julie von Charpentier (1776â"1811), a daughter of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Toussaint von Charpentier, a professor in Freiberg.
From Pentecost 1799, Novalis again worked in the management of salt mines. That December, he became an assessor of the salt mines and a director. On the December 6, 1800, the twenty-eight-year-old Hardenberg was appointed "Supernumerar-Amtshauptmann" for the district of Thuringia, a position comparable to that of a present-day magistrate. But from August onward, Hardenberg suffered from tuberculosis, and on March 25, 1801, he died in WeiÃenfels. His body was buried in the old cemetery there.
Novalis lived long enough to see the publication only of Pollen, Faith and Love or the King and the Queen and Hymns to the Night. His unfinished novels Heinrich von Ofterdingen and The Novices at Sais, his political speech Christendom or Europa, and numerous other notes and fragments were published posthumously by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel.
Novalis, who was deeply read in science, law, philosophy, politics and political economy, started writing quite early. He left an abundance of notes on these fields and his early work displays his ease and familiarity with them. His later works are closely connected to his studies and his profession. Novalis collected everything that he had learned, reflected upon it and drew connections in the sense of an encyclopaedic overview on art, religion and science. These notes from the years 1798 and 1799 are called Das allgemeine Brouillon, and are now available in English under the title Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia. Together with Friedrich Schlegel, Novalis developed the fragment as a literary form of art. The core of Hardenbergâs literary works is the quest for the connection of science and poetry, and the result was supposed to be a "progressive universal poesyâ (fragment no. 116 of the Athenaum journal). Novalis was convinced that philosophy and the higher-ranking poetry have to be continually related to each other.
The fact that the romantic fragment is an appropriate form for a depiction of "progressive universal poesyâ, can be seen especially from the success of this new genre in its later reception.
Novalis' whole works are based upon an idea of education: "We are on a mission: we are called upon to educate the earth." It has to be made clear that everything is in a continual process. It is the same with humanity, which forever strives towards and tries to recreate a new Golden Age â" a paradisical Age of harmony between man and nature that was assumed to have existed in earlier times. This Age was described by Plato, Plotinus, and Franz Hemsterhuis, the last of whom was an extremely important figure for the German Romantics.
This idea of a romantic universal poesy can be seen clearly in the romantic triad. This theoretical structure always shows its recipient that the described moment is exactly the moment (kairos) in which the future is decided. These frequently mentioned critical points correspond with the artistâs feeling for the present, which Novalis shares with many other contemporaries of his time. Thus a triadic structure can be found in most of his works. This means that there are three corresponding structural elements which are written differently concerning the content and the form.
Hardenbergâs intensive study of the works of Jakob BÃ¶hme, from 1800, had a clear influence on his own writing.
A mystical world view, a high standard of education, and the frequently perceptible pietistic influences are combined in Novalis' attempt to reach a new concept of Christianity, faith, and God. He forever endeavours to align these with his own view of transcendental philosophy, which acquired the mysterious name "Magical idealism". Magical idealism draws heavily from the critical or transcendental idealism of Kant and Fichte, and incorporates the artistic element central to Early German Romanticism. The subject must strive to conform the external, natural world to its own will and genius; hence the term "magical". David Krell calls magical idealism "thaumaturgic idealism." This view can even be discerned in more religious works such as the Spiritual Songs (published 1802), which soon became incorporated into Lutheran hymn-books.
Novalis influenced, among others, the novelist and theologian George MacDonald, who translated his 'Hymns to the Night' in 1897. More recently, Novalis, as well as the Early Romantic (FrÃ¼hromantik) movement as a whole, has been recognized as constituting a separate philosophical school, as opposed to simply a literary movement. Recognition of the distinctness of FrÃ¼hromantik philosophy is owed in large part, in the English speaking world at least, to the writer Frederick Beiser.
In August 1800, eight months after completion, the revised edition of the Hymnen an die Nacht was published in the Athenaeum. They are often considered to be the climax of Novalisâ lyrical works and the most important poetry of the German early Romanticism.
The six hymns contain many elements which can be understood as autobiographical. Even though a lyrical "I", rather than Novalis himself, is the speaker, there are many relationships between the hymns and Hardenbergâs experiences from 1797 to 1800.
The topic is the romantic interpretation of life and death, the threshold of which is symbolised by the night. Life and death are â" according to Novalis â" developed into entwined concepts. So in the end, death is the romantic principle of life.
Influences from the literature of that time can be seen. The metaphors of the hymns are closely connected to the books Novalis had read at about the time of his writing of the hymns. These are prominently Shakespeareâs Romeo and Juliet (in the translation by A.W. Schlegel, 1797) and Jean Paulâs Unsichtbare Loge (1793).
The Hymns to the Night display a universal religion with an intermediary. This concept is based on the idea that there is always a third party between a human and God. This intermediary can either be Jesus â" as in Christian lore â" or the dead beloved as in the hymns. These works consist of three times two hymns. These three components are each structured in this way: the first hymn shows, with the help of the Romantic triad, the development from an assumed happy life on earth through a painful era of alienation to salvation in the eternal night; the following hymn tells of the awakening from this vision and the longing for a return to it. With each pair of hymns, a higher level of experience and knowledge is shown.
The novel fragments Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Die Lehrlinge zu Sais (The Novices of Sais) reflect the idea of describing a universal world harmony with the help of poetry. The novel 'Heinrich von Ofterdingen' contains the "blue flower", a symbol that became an emblem for the whole of German Romanticism. Originally the novel was supposed to be an answer to Goetheâs Wilhelm Meister, a work that Novalis had read with enthusiasm but later on judged as being highly unpoetical. He disliked the victory of the economical over the poetic.
The speech called Die Christenheit oder Europa was written in 1799, but was first published in 1826. It is a poetical, cultural-historical speech with a focus on a political utopia with regard to the Middle Ages. In this text Novalis tries to develop a new Europe which is based on a new poetical Christendom which shall lead to unity and freedom. He got the inspiration for this text from Schleiermacherâs Ãber die Religion (1799). The work was also a response to the French Enlightenment and Revolution, both of which Novalis saw as catastrophic and irreligious. It anticipated, then, the growing German and Romantic theme of anti-Enlightenment visions of European spirituality and order.
Walter Pater includes Novalis's quote, "Philosophiren ist delphlegmatisiren, vivificiren" (to philosophize is to throw off apathy, to become revived) in his conclusion to Studies in the History of the Renaissance. Novalis' poetry and writings were also an influence on Hermann Hesse.
Novalis was also a huge influence on George MacDonald, and so indirectly on C. S. Lewis, the Inklings, and the whole modern fantasy genre. Borges refers often to Novalis in his work.
Novelist Penelope Fitzgerald's last work, The Blue Flower, is a historical fiction about Novalis, his education, his philosophical and poetic development, and his romance with Sophie.
The krautrock band Novalis, beside taking their name from him, adapted or used directly poems by Novalis as lyrics on their albums.
In tribute to his writings, Novalis records are produced by AVC Audio Visual Communications AG, Switzerland.
Novalis in print
Novalis' works were originally issued in two volumes by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel (2 vols. 1802; a third volume was added in 1846). Editions of Novalis' collected works have since been compiled by C. Meisner and Bruno Wille (1898), by E. Heilborn (3 vols., 1901), and by J. Minor (3 vols., 1907). Heinrich von Ofterdingen was published separately by J. Schmidt in 1876.
Novalis's Correspondence was edited by J. M. Raich in 1880. See R. Haym Die romantische Schule (Berlin, 1870); A. Schubart, Novalis' Leben, Dichten und Denken (1887); C. Busse, Novalis' Lyrik (1898); J. Bing, Friedrich von Hardenberg (Hamburg, 1899), E. Heilborn, Friedrich von Hardenberg (Berlin, 1901).
The most comprehensive and reliable edition of Novalis's works in German is the so-called 'Historische-Kritische Ausgabe' (commonly abbreviated as HKA): Novalis Schriften, six volumes, edited by Richard Samuel, Hans-Joachim MÃ¤hl and Gerhard Schulz, Stuttgart, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1960â"2006.
Novalis in English
Several of Novalis's notebooks and philosophical works have been recently translated into English.
- Novalis: Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia (Das Allgemeine Brouillon), trans. and ed. David W. Wood, State University of New York Press, 2007. First English translation of Novalis's unfinished project for a universal science, it contains his most developed thoughts on philosophy, the arts, religion, literature and poetry, and his theory of 'Magical Idealism'. The Appendix also contains substantial extracts from Novalis's Freiberg Natural Scientific Studies 1798/1799.
- The Birth of Novalis: Friedrich von Hardenberg's Journal of 1797, With Selected Letters and Documents, trans. and ed. Bruce Donehower, State University of New York Press, 2007.
- Novalis: Philosophical Writings, trans. and ed. Margaret Mahoney Stoljar, State University of New York Press, 1997. This volume contains several of Novalis' works, including Pollen or Miscellaneous Observations, one of the few complete works published in his lifetime (though it was altered for publication by Friedrich Schlegel); Logological Fragments I and II; Monologue, a long fragment on language; Faith and Love or The King and Queen, a collection of political fragments also published during his lifetime; On Goethe; extracts from Das allgemeine Broullion or General Draft; and his essay Christendom or Europe.
- Fichte Studies, trans. Jane Kneller, Cambridge University Press: 2003. This translation is part of the Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy Series.
- Hymns to the Night / Spiritual Songs, Tr. George MacDonald, Forward by Sergei O. Prokofieff, Temple Lodge Publishing, London 2001.
- Classic and Romantic German Aesthetics, ed. Jay Bernstein, Cambridge University Press, 2003. This book is in the same series, the Fichte-Studies and contains a very good selection of fragments, plus it includes Novalis' Dialogues. Also in this collection are fragments by Schlegel and HÃ¶lderlin.
- Henry von Ofterdingen, trans. Palmer Hilty, Waveland Press: 1990.
- The Novices of Sais, trans. by Ralph Manheim, Archipelago Books: 2005. This translation was originally published in 1949. This edition includes illustrations by Paul Klee. The Novices of Sais contains the fairy tale "Hyacinth and Rose Petal."
- Hymns to the Night, trans. by Dick Higgins, McPherson & Company: 1988. This modern translation includes the German text (with variants) en face.
- Ameriks, Karl (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to German Idealism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- Behler, Ernst. German Romantic Literary Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
- Beiser, Frederick. German Idealism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.
- Berman, Antoine. L'Ã©preuve de l'Ã©tranger. Culture et traduction dans l'Allemagne romantique: Herder, Goethe, Schlegel, Novalis, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, HÃ¶lderlin., Paris, Gallimard, Essais, 1984. ISBN 978-2-07-070076-9
- Fitzgerald, Penelope. The Blue Flower. Mariner Books, 1997. A novelization of Novalis' early life.
- Haywood, Bruce. Novalis, the veil of imagery; a study of the poetic works of Friedrich von Hardenberg, 1772-1801 's-Gravenhage, Mouton, 1959; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959.
- Krell, David Farrell. Contagion. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
- Kuzniar, Alice. Delayed Endings. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1987.
- Lacoue-Labarthe, Phillipe and Jean-Luc Nancy. The Literary Absolute. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.
- MolnÃ¡r, Geza von. Novalis' "Fichte Studies".
- OâBrien, William Arctander. Novalis: Signs of Revolution. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8223-1519-X
- Pfefferkorn, Kristin. Novalis: A Romantic's Theory of Language and Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
- Prokofieff, Sergei O. Eternal Individuality. Towards a Karmic Biography of Novalis. Temple Lodge Publishing, London 1992.
- Valin, Gerard. Novalis et Henri Bosco, deux poetes mystiques, ThÃ¨se de doctorat de lettres, Paris Nanterre, 1972.
- Works by Novalis at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Novalis at Internet Archive
- Works by Novalis at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Novalis by Kristin Gjesdal (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
- Novalis: Hymns to The Night â" a translation of the work by George MacDonald
- Novalis Online â" including a few (computer-generated) hybrid-English translations, and essays on and by Novalis.
- Oberwiederstedt Manor, birthplace of Novalis and home to the International Novalis Society and the Novalis Foundation (in German)
- Aquarium: Friedrich von Hardenberg im Internet â" a highly useful multi-lingual web-site for information on Novalis. It provides updates and news in English, German, French, Spanish and Italian, on the latest Novalis translations and reviews, along with general discussions, odd trivia and scholarly articles.
- A detailed review article on Novalis's importance to German culture, philosophy and science by Jeremy Adler â" from The Times Literary Supplement, April 16, 2008.
- Es FÃ¤rbte Sich die Wiese GrÃ¼n (in English translation) by Leon W. Malinofsky
- Â "Novalis". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.Â
- Â "Novalis". EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.Â