Marcel Lajos Breuer (pronounced BROY-ÉrÂ ;22 May 1902 â" 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer. One of the masters of Modernism, Breuer extended the sculptural vocabulary he had developed in the carpentry shop at the Bauhaus into a personal architecture that made him one of the worldâs most popular architects at the peak of 20th-Century design.
Life and work
Known to his friends and associates as LajkÃ³ (the diminutive of his middle name and pronounced Lye-ko), Breuer left his hometown at the age of 18 in search of artistic training and was one of the first and youngest students at the Bauhausâ" a radical arts and crafts school that Walter Gropius had founded in Weimar just after the first World War. He was recognized by Gropius as a significant talent and was quickly put at the head of the Carpentry Shop. (Gropius was to remain a lifelong mentor for a man who was 19 years his junior.)
After the school had moved from Weimar to Dessau in 1925, Breuer returned from a brief sojourn in Paris to join older faculty members such as Josef Albers, Wassily Kandinsky, and Paul Klee as a Master, eventually teaching in its newly established department of architecture.
First recognized for his invention of bicycle-handlebar-inspired tubular steel furniture, Breuer lived off his design fees at a time in the late 1920s and early 1930s when the architectural commissions he was looking for were few and far-between. He was known to such giants as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, whose architectural vocabulary he was later to adapt as part of his own, but hardly considered an equal by them who were his senior by 15 and 16 years. Despite the widespread popular belief that the chair was designed for Wassily Kandinsky, it was not; Kandinsky admired Breuer's finished chair design, and only then did Breuer make an additional copy for Kandinsky's use in his home. When the chair was re-released in the 1960s, it was designated "Wassily" by its Italian manufacturer, who had learned that Kandinsky had been the recipient of one of the earliest post-prototype units.
It was Gropius who assigned Breuer interiors at the 1927 Weissenhofsiedlung and led him to his first house assignment for the Harnischmachers in Wiesbaden in 1932. Sigfried Giedion extended their furniture collaboration at the Wohnbedarf in Zurich to include a furniture showroom and the great Dolderthal apartments just outside of town.
In the 1930s, at Gropius' suggestion, Breuer relocated to London. Breuerâs departure from then Nazi Germany has led some scholars to lump him with the group of Jewish architects and artists who fled the country at that time. Although Breuerâs parents were Jewish, it was only in 1981 that Christopher Wilk, preparing his Interiors book for MoMA, found his formal renunciation of the Jewish faith before the Chief Rabbi of Frankfurt in the Breuer archives at Syracuse. Breuer had declared himself as non-religious in order to marry his Bauhaus sweetheart, Marta Erps.
While in London, Breuer was employed by Jack Pritchard at the Isokon company; one of the earliest proponents of modern design in the United Kingdom. Breuer designed his Long Chair as well as experimenting with bent and formed plywood. Between 1935 and 1937 he worked in practice with the English Modernist F. R. S. Yorke with whom he designed a number of houses.
In 1937, Gropius accepted the appointment as chairman of Harvardâs Graduate School of Design and again Breuer followed his mentor to join the faculty in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The two men formed a partnership that was to greatly influence the establishment of an American way of designing modern houses â" spread by their great collection of wartime students including Paul Rudolph, Eliot Noyes, I.M. Pei, Ulrich Franzen, John Johansen, and Philip Johnson. One of the most intact examples of Breuer's furniture and interior design work during this period is the Frank House in Pittsburgh, designed with Gropius as a Gesamtkunstwerk.
Breuer broke with his father-figure, Walter Gropius, in 1941 over a very minor issue but the major reason may have been to get himself out from under the better-known name that dominated their practice. Breuer had married their secretary, Constance Crocker Leighton, and after a few more years in Cambridge, moved down to New York City (with Harry Seidler as his chief draftsman) to establish a practice that was centered there for the rest of his life.
The Geller House I of 1945 is one of the first to employ Breuer's concept of the 'binuclear' house, with separate wings for the bedrooms and for the living / dining / kitchen area, separated by an entry hall, and with the distinctive 'butterfly' roof (two opposing roof surfaces sloping towards the middle, centrally drained) that became part of the popular modernist style vocabulary. Breuer built two houses for himself in New Canaan, Connecticut: one from 1947 to 1948, and the other from 1951 to 1952. A demonstration house set up in the MoMA garden in 1949 caused a flurry of interest in the architect's work, and an appreciation written by Peter Blake. When the show was over, the "House in the Garden" was dismantled and barged up the Hudson River for reassembly on the Rockefeller property in Pocantico Hills near Sleepy Hollow.
His first two important institutional buildings were the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris finished in 1955 and the monastic Master Plan and Church at St Johnâs Abbey in Minnesota in 1954 (again, in part, on the recommendation of Gropius, a âcompetitorâ for the job,who told the monks they needed a younger man who could finish the job.) These commissions were a turning point in Breuer's career: a move to larger projects after years of residential commissions and the beginning of Breuer's adoption of concrete as his primary medium.
Breuer designed the Washington, D.C. headquarters building for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development which was completed in 1968. While the building received some initial praise, in recent decades it has received widespread criticism. Former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Jack Kemp once described the building as "10 floors of basement." Another former Secretary, Shaun Donovan, has noted that "the building itself is among the most reviled in all of Washingtonâ"and with good reason." Many critics have argued that Breuer's design is unoriginal, and essentially mimics the UNESCO Headquarters and IBM Research Center which he designed several years earlier.
Throughout the almost 30 years and nearly 100 buildings that followed, Breuer worked with a number of partners and associates with whom he openly and insistently shared design credit: Pier Luigi Nervi at UNESCO; Herbert Beckhard, Robert Gatje, Hamilton Smith and Tician Papachristou in New York, Mario Jossa and Harry Seidler in Paris. Their contribution to his life work has largely been credited properly, though the critics and public rightly recognized a âBreuer Buildingâ when they saw one.
Breuerâs architectural vocabulary moved through at least four recognizable phases:
1-The white box and glass school of the International style that he adapted for his early houses in Europe and the USA: the Harnischmacher House, Gropius House, Frank House, and his own first house in Lincoln, Massachusetts.
2-The punctured wooden walls that characterized his famous 1948 âHouse in the Gardenâfor MoMA and a series of relatively modest houses for knowledgeable university faculty families in the 50s. This included the first of his houses in New Canaan, CT, with its balcony hung off a cantilever.
3-The modular prefabricated concrete panel faÃ§ades that first enclosed his favorite IBM Laboratory in La Gaude, France and went on to be used in many of his institutional buildings plus the whole town at Flaine. Some critics spoke of repetitiveness but Breuer quoted a professional friend: âI canât design a whole new system every Monday morning.â
4-The stone and shaped concrete that he used for unique and memorable commissions: his best-known project, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Muskegon and St Johnâs Abbey Churches, the Atlanta Public Library, and his second house in New Canaan.
Breuer was awarded the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects at their 100th annual convention in 1968 at Portland, OR. In an ironic timing of events, it coincided with general criticism of one of Americaâs favorite architects for his willingness to design a multi-story office building on top of Grand Central Station. The project was never built. It cost him many friends and supporters although its defeat by the US Supreme Court established the right of New York and other cities to protect their landmarks.During his lifetime, Breuer rarely acknowledged the influence of other architectsâ work upon his own but he had certainly picked up the use of rough board-formed concrete from Le Corbusier and the noble dignity of his second New Canaan house seems to have directly descended from Miesâ Barcelona Pavilion. Shortly before his death, he told an interviewer that he considered his principal contribution to have been the adaptation of the work of older architects to the needs of modern society. He died in his apartment in Manhattan in 1981, leaving his wife Connie, son Tom,and daughter Cesca. His partners kept offices going in his name and with his permission in Paris and New York for several years but, with their eventual retirement, each is now closed. Breuerâs work is reflected in the memory and product of hundreds of students and associates.
Chronology of Breuerâs Work â" Buildings, principal Projects, Furniture, and Interiors
Breuer donated many of his professional papers and drawings to the Special Collections Research Center at the Syracuse University library beginning in the late 1960s. The remainder of his papers, including most of his personal correspondence, were donated to the Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C. between 1985 and 1999 by Breuer's wife, Constance.
While at the Bauhaus â" Weimar and Dessau
1925 First all-tubular steel chair (the Wassily)
1925 Stool / Side Table of tubular steel (leading to cantilevered chair)
1926 Gropius, Moholy-Nagy, Kandinsky, and Muche Interiorsâ" the Bauhaus â" Dessau, Germany
1927 Piscator Apartment - Berlin, Germany
1927 Weissenhof Siedlung â" Gropius and Stam Apartment Interiors â" Stuttgart, Germany
1928 First cantilevered steel chair (the Cesca)
Independent Practice â" Berlin and Zurich
1931 Berlin Building Exhibition â" âHouse for a Sportsmanâ â" Berlin, Germany
1932 Harnischmacher House I â" Wiesbaden, Germany
â" 1954 Harnischmacher House II â" Wiesbaden, Germany
1932 Wohnbedarf Furnniture Stores â" Basel and Zurich, Switzerland â" for Sigfried Giedion
1935 Doldertal Apartments â" Zurich, Switzerland â" with A and E Roth for Sigfried Giedion
With Isokon and in partnership with FRS Yorke - London
1935 Isokon Furniture Company - Plywood Tables and Stacking Chairsâ" London, England
â" 1936 Isokon Furniture Company - Reclining Plywood Chairsâ" London, England
1936 Ventris Apartment in Highpoint â" London, England
1936 Model for the âCivic Center of the Futureâ â" with FRS Yorke
1936 Ganeâs Exhibition Pavilion â" Bristol, England â" with FRS Yorke
1938 Houses in Hampshire, Sussex, and Eton College, England â" with FRS Yorke
Faculty Member of the Harvard Graduate School of Design and in partnership with Walter Gropius â" Cambridge, MA
1938 Gropius House â" Lincoln, MA â" with Walter Gropius
1938 Hagerty House â" Cohasset, MA â" with Walter Gropius
1939 Breuer House â" Lincoln, MA â" with Walter Gropius
1939 Ford House â" Lincoln, MA â" with Walter Gropius
1939 Frank House â" Pittsburgh, PA â" with Walter Gropius
1939 New York Worldâs Fair - Pennsylvania State Exhibition â"â" with Walter Gropius
1940 Chamberlain Cottage â" Wayland, MA â" with Walter Gropius
1941 Weizenblatt House â" Asheville, NC â" with Walter Gropius
1941 Defense Housing for Aluminum Workers â" New Kensington, PA â" with Walter Gropius
Independent Practice while still at Harvard
1945 Project for Servicemanâs Memorial â" Cambridge, MA â" with Lawrence S Anderson
1945 Geller House I â" Lawrence, NY
â" 1969 Geller House II â" Lawrence, NY â" with Herbert Beckhard
1946 Tompkins House â" Hewlett Harbor, NY
Independent Practice in New York City with Associates
1947 Breuer House â" New Canaan I, CT (cantilevered)
â" 1951 Breuer House â" New Canaan II, CT (rubble stone)
1947 Mills House â" New Canaan, CT
1947 Ariston Club â" Mar del Plata, Argentina â" with Eduardo Catalano
1947 Robinson House â" Williamstown, MA
1948 Kniffen House â" New Canaan, CT â" with Eliot Noyes
1948 Scott House â" Dennis, MA
1948 Thompson House â" Ligonier, PA
1949 Kepes and Breuer Cottages â" Wellfleet, MA
â" 1953 Edgar Stillman Cottage â" Wellfleet, MA
â" 1963 Wise Cottage â" Wellfleet, MA 1949 Hooper House I â" Baltimore, MD
â" 1959 Hooper House II â" Baltimore, MD â" with Herbert Beckhard
1949 Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) â"House in the Museum Garden â"New York, NY
â" 1950 Tilley House â" Red Bank, NJ â" based upon the MoMA House
â" 1950 Lauck House â" Princeton, NJ â" based upon the MoMA House
â" 1950 Foote House â" Chappaqua, NY â" based upon the MoMA House
1950 Marshad House â" Croton-on-Hudson, NY
1950 Wolfson Trailer House â" Pleasant Valley, NY
1950 Clark House â" Orange, Ct
1950 Englund House â" Pleasantville, NY
1950 Hanson House â" Huntington, NY
1950 Rufus Stillman House I â" Litchfield, CT
â" 1965 Rufus Stillman House II â" Litchfield, CT - with Herbert Beckhard
â" 1974 Rufus Stillman House III â" Litchfield, CT â" with Tician Papachristou
1950 McComb House â" Poughkeepsie, NY
1950 Ferry Cooperative Dormitory â" Vassar College â" Poughkeepsie, NY
1951 Pack House â" Scarsdale, NY
1951 Witalis House â" Kings Point, NY
1951 Sarah Lawrence College - Arts Center â" Bronxville, NY
1951 Grosse Pointe Public Library â" Grosse Pointe, MI
1951 Abraham & Straus - Exterior FaÃ§ade â" Hemptead, NY
1952 Caesar Cottage - Lakeville, CT
1952 Levy House â" Princeton, NJ
1953 Torin Corp â" Manufacturing Plant â"Oakville, Ontario â" Canada
â" 1956 Torin Corp â" Manufacturing Plantâ" Van Nuys, CA â" with Craig Ellwood
â" 1963 Torin Corp â" Machine Divisionâ" Torrington, CT â" with Robert Gatje
â" 1964 Torin Corp â" Manufacturing Plantâ" Nivelles, Belgium â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1966 Torin Corp â" Administration Buildingâ" Torrington, CT â" with Herbert Beckhard
â" 1966 Torin Corp â" Manufacturing Plant â" Swindon, England â" with Robert Gatje
â" 1968 Torin Corp â" Manufacturing Plant â" Rochester, IN â" with Robert Gatje
â" 1971 Torin Corp â" Technical Center â" Torrington, CT â" with Herbert Beckhard
â" 1976 Torin Corp â" Manufacturing Plantâ" Penrith Australia â"with Herbert Beckhard
1953 St Johnâs Abbey and University â" Master Plan â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1955 St Johnâs Abbey â" Monastery Wing â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1959 St Johnâs University â" Residence Hall I â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1961 St Johnâs Abbey â" Church and Bell Banner â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1966 St Johnâs University â" Library â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1966 St Johnâs University â" Science Building â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1967 St Johnâs University â" Residence Hall II â" Collegeville, MN â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1968 St Johnâs University â" Ecumenical Institute â" Collegeville, MN â" with Robert Gatje
1953 Northfield Elementary School â" Litchfield, CT â" with OâConnor & Kilham
â" 1956 Bantam Elementary School â" Bantam, CT â" with OâConnor & Kilham
â" 1956 Litchfield High School â" Litchfield, CT â" with OâConnor & Kilham
1954 Neumann House â" Croton-on-Hudson
1954 Snower House â" Kansas City, KS â" with Robert Gatje
1954 Grieco House â" Andover, MA
1954 O E McIntyre, Inc â" Manufacturing Plant - Westbury, NY â" with William Landsberg
1954 Starkey (Alworth) House â" Duluth, MN â" with Herbert Beckhard and Robert Gatje
1954 Gagarin House â" Litchfield, CT â" with Herbert Beckhard
1955 Connecticut Junior Republic â" Litchfield, CT â" with Herbert Beckhard
1956 Karsten House â" Owings Mill, MD
1957 Laaff House â" Andover, MA â" with Herbert Beckhard
1957 De Bijenkorf Department Store â" Rotterdam, the Netherlands â" with A Elzas
1957 Institute for Advanced Study â" Membersâ Housing â" Princeton, NJ â" with Robert Gatje
1958 UNESCO Headquarters â" Paris, France â" with Pier Luigi Nervi and Bernard Zehrfuss
1958 United States Embassy â" The Hague, the Netherlands
1958 Van Leer Office Building â" Amstelveen, the Netherlands
1958 Staehelin House â" Feldmeilen, Switzerland â" with Herbart Beckhard
1958 Krieger House â" Bethesda, MD
1959 Westchester Reform Temple â" Scarsdale, NY â" with William Landsberg
1960 Hunter College â" Library and Administration Building â" The Bronx, NY â" with Robert Gatje
1959 Annunciation Priory â" Convent - Bismarck, ND â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1968 Annunciation Priory â" Mary College â" Bismarck, ND â" with Tician Papachristou
1960 McMullen Beach House â" Mantoloking, NJ â" with Herbert Beckhard
1960 Resort Town Flaine â" Master Plan â" Haute-Savoie, France â" with Herbert Beckhard
â" since 1969 Resort Town Flaine â" Over fifty buildings with Robert Gatje and Mario Jossa
1961 New York University â" Dormitory and Student Center â" the Bronx, NY - with Robert Gatje
â" 1961 & 1970 New York University â" Technology Buildings â" with Hamilton Smith
1961 IBM France â" Research Center â" La Gaude, France â" with Robert Gatje
â" since 1968 IBM France Extensions - La Gaude â" with Robert Gatje and Mario Jossa
1961 Kacmarcik House â" St Paul, MN
Practice in New York, with eventual Partners
1963 Fairview Heights Apartments â" Ithaca, NY â" with Hamilton Smith
1966 Koerfer House â" Moscia (Tessin), Switzerland â" with Herbert Beckhard
1966 Whitney Museum of American Art - New York, NY â" with Hamilton Smith
1966 St Francis de Sales â" Church and Rectory â" Muskegon, MI â" with Herbert Beckhard
1966 ZUP de Bayonne â" Master Plan & Apartmentsâ" Bayonne, France â" with Robert Gatje
1967 Laboratoires Sarget-Ambrine â" Headquarters â" Merignac, France â" with Robert Gatje
1968 Department of HUD â" Headquarters â" Washington, DC â" with Herbert Beckhard
1968 IBM â" Master Plan and Manufacturing Center â" Boca Raton, FL â" with Robert Gatje
â" since 1970 IBM Boca Extensions â" with Robert Gatje
1968 Project for Grand Central Tower â" New York, NY â" with Herbert Beckhard
1969 Soriano House â" Greenwich, CT â" with Tician Papachristou
1970 University of Massachusetts â" Campus Center â" Amherst, MA â" with Herbert Beckhard
1970 Yale University â" Becton Laboratory Building â" New Haven, CT â" with Hamilton Smith
1970 Cleveland Museum of Art â" Education Wing â" Cleveland, OH â" with Hamilton Smith
1970 Armstrong Rubber Company â" Headquarters â" New Haven, CT â" with Robert Gatje
1970 Baldegg Convent â" âMother Houseâ â" Lucerne, Switzerland â" with Robert Gatje
1971 Cleveland Trust Company â" Headquarters â" Cleveland, OH â" with Hamilton Smith
1971 Bryn Mawr School for Girls â" Lower and Elementary â" Baltimore, MD â" with Hamilton Smith
1973 Sayer House â" Glanville, France â" with Mario Jossa and Robert Gatje
1974 American Press Institute â" Conference Center â" Reston, VA â" with Hamilton Smith
1974 SNET â" Telephone Systems Building â" Torrington, CT â" with Hamilton Smith
1975 Grand Coulee Dam â" Third Power Plant â" Grand Coulee, WA â" with Hamilton Smith
â" 1978 Grand Coulee Dam â" Visitors Arrival Center â" with Hamilton Smith
1975 Mundipharma â" Hqs and Mfg Bldg â" Limburg, Germany â" with Robert Gatje
1975 Clarksburg Harrison Public Library â" Clarksburg, WV â" with Hamilton Smith
1976 Department of HEW â" Headquarters â" Washington, DC â" with Herbert Beckhard
1978 SUNY@ Buffalo â" Engineering & Appl Science Faculty â" Amherst, NY â" with Robert Gatje
1980 Atlanta Central Public Library â" Atlanta, GA â" with Hamilton Smith
In November 2007, the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C. developed an exhibition dedicated to the work of Marcel Breuer. The exhibition, titled Marcel Breuer: Design and Architecture, was available to the public until February 2008.
â" Cape Cod Modern House Trust
â" Category:Marcel Breuer buildings
Books and Pamphlets on Breuer
Abercrombie, Stanley. Koerfer House (with Herbert Beckhard), Moscia, Tessin, Switzerland 1963-6, Stillman House III (with Tician Papachristou), Litchfield, Connecticut 1972-74. Tokyo: A.D. A. Edita Tokyo, 1977.
Argan, Giulio Carlo. Marcel Breuer, Disegno Industriale e Architettura. Milano: GÃ¶rlich, 1957.
Armesto, Antonio, ed. Marcel Breuer: Casas Americans. Barcelona: G. Gili, 2001.
Blake, Peter. Marcel Breuer: Architect and Designer. New York: 1949.
â"â"â"., ed. Sun and Shadow: The Philosophy of an Architect. New York: Dodd, Mead .
Chaljub, Benedicte. Marcel Breuer Ã Flaine â" Portrait. Le Conseil dâArchitecture, dâUrbanisme et de lâEnvironnement de Haute-Savoie, 2014.
Cobbers, Arnt. Marcel Breuer, 1902-1981: Form Giver of the Twentieth Century. London: Taschen, 2007.
Driller, Joachim. Marcel Breuer: das architektonische FrÃ¼hwerk bis 1950. Ph.D. Thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-UniversitÃ¤t, Freiburg i.Br., 1990.
â"â"â". Breuer Houses. Translated by Mark Cole and Jeremy Verrinder. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 2000.
â"â"â". Marcel Breuer: Die WohnhÃ¤user, 1923-1973. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1998.
Droste, Magdalena and Manfred Ludewig. Marcel Breuer Design. KÃ¶ln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994.
Earles, William D. The Harvard Five in New Canaan: Midcentury Modern Houses by Marcel Breuer, Landis Gores, John Johansen, Philip Johnson, Eliot Noyes and Others. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.
Galema, Wijnand and Fransje Hooimeijer. Bouwen aan diplomatie: De Amerikaanse ambassade in Den Haag Marcel Breuer, 1956 â" 1959. Hague: Cultuurhistorische verkenning, 2008.
Gatje, Robert F. Marcel Breuer: A Memoir. New York: The Monacelli Press, 2000.
Howard, Shirley Reiff. Marcel Breuer, Concrete and the Cross. Muskegon, MI.: Hackley Art Museum, 1978.
Hyman, Isabelle. Marcel Breuer, Architect. The Career and the Buildings. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001.
Izzo, Alberto and Camillo Gubitosi, eds. Marcel Breuer: Architettura 1921-1980. Firenze: Centro Di, 1981.
Jones, Cranston. Buildings and Projects, 1921-1961. New York: Praeger, 1962.
Kepes, Gyorgy, ed. The Man-Made Object. New York: G. Braziller, 1966.
Masello, David. Architecture Without Rules: The Houses of Marcel Breuer and Herbert Beckhard. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993.
Pearson, Christopher E. M. Designing UNESCO: Art, Architecture and International Politics at Mid-Century. Burlington, VT.: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2010.
Papachristou, Tician. Marcel Breuer, New Buildings and Projects. New York: Praeger, 1970.
Schneck, Adolf G., ed. Der Stuhl: Stuhltypen aus verschiedenen LÃ¤ndern und Versuche neuzeitlicher LÃ¶sungen in Ansichten und Masszeichnungen. Stuttgart: Hoffmann, 1928.
Stoddard, Whitney S. Adventure in Architecture: Building the New Saint Johnâs. New York: Longmans, Green, 1958.
Thimmesh, Hilary. Marcel Breuer and a Committee of Twelve Plan a Church: A Monastic Memoir. Collegeville, MN: Saint Johnâs University Press, 2011.
Young, Victoria M. Saint John's Abbey Church: Marcel Breuer and the Creation of a Modern Sacred Space. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014
Breuerâs Whitney: an Anniversary Exhibition. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1996.
A Design Studentâs Guide to the New York Worldâs Fair. New York: PM Magazine and Laboratory School of Industrial Design, 1939.
Marcel Breuer: an Exhibition organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, .
Bergdoll, Barry and Leah Dickerson. Bauhaus 1919-1933: Workshops for Modernity. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2009.
Scheffler, Renate, ed. Marcel Breuer: Ausstellung im Bauhaus-Archiv. Berlin: Bauhaus-Archiv, .
von Vegesack, Alexander and Mathias Remmele, eds. Marcel Breuer: Design and Architecture. Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum, 2003.
Wilk, Christopher. Marcel Breuer: Furniture and Interiors. London: Architectural Press, 1981.
âA. & S. â" Nassau Store Designed to Provide Main-Store Facilities in Outlying Area.â Architectural Record (February 1951).
âAir Line Office with a Lift.â Architectural Record (April 1946).
âAluminum City Terrace Housing.â Architectural Forum (July 1944): 65-76.
âA Beach Club to Sell a View.â Architectural Record (July 1948).
âThe Breuer House at the Museum of Modern Art New York.â The Architect and Building News (20 May 1949).
âLa Case di Marcel Breuer nel Connecticut.â Domus, no. 233 (1949).
âCasa Para la Familia que Crece.â Nuestra Arquitectura 21, no. 242 (September 1949).
âCasa rustica,â Domus (Sep 1949): 1-4.
âThe Case of the Aging House: How it Was Given a New Lease on Life.â House and Garden (April 1951).
âDe Bijenkorf te Rotterdam.â Bouwkundig Weekblad (24 April 1956).
âDiscoveries in Living.â Science Illustrated (April 1942): 65-95.
âA Dollar Buys More Room.â Science Illustrated (April 1942).
âDormitory Interiors.â Architectural Record (April 1946).
âElementary School: Bantam, Connecticut.â Progressive Architecture (February 1957).
âFactory by Marcel Breuer is Bright and Handsome-All Around.â Architectural Forum (February 1955).
âFireplace: House in New York.â The Architect and Building News (14 October 1949).
âFor Practice in Housekeeping.â Architectural Record (June 1950).
âFour American Houses.â The Architectural Review (November 1939).
âA Garden City of the Future.â The Architectsâ Journal (26 March 1936).
âGeller House, Lawrence, Long Island.â Progressive Architecture (February 1947).
âGuest Architect in the Netherlands.â Katholick Beowblad (vol. xxvi, no. 21).
âGrand magasin Ã Rotterdam.â [unknown publication] [French]
âHabitations 50.â Lâarchitecture dâaujourdâhui ( July 1950): 35-48.
âA House Fitted to the Berkshire Hills.â Architectural Record (February 1949).
âHouse for the Growing Family.â Architectural Forum (May 1949): 94-101.
âHouses by F.R.S. Yorke and Marcel Breuer.â Architectural Review (January 1939): 29-35.
âMarcel Breuer.â Interiors (September 1977): 98-109.
âMarcel Breuer: almacenes, en Rotterdam.â Revista Informes de la construcciÃ³n (April 1956).
âMarcel Breuer Builds for Himself.â Architectural Record (October 1948): 91-101.
âMarcel Breuer Designs in Plywood.â Upholstering (February 1947).
âMarcel Breuer: da Bauhaus Ã Casa no Jardim.â Pilotis (February 1950).
âMarcel Breuer: Teacher and Architect.â House and Home (May 1952).
âMarcel Breuerâs Own House.â The Architectural Review (1949).
âNetherlands Department Store Rebuilds.â Architectural Record (May 1955).
âNoi pietra, essi legno: La casa di Marcel Breuer nel Connecticut.â Domus (1949): 2-7.
âUna Nueva Obra de Marcel Breuer.â Nuestra Arquitectura 11 (November 1948). [Spanish]
âOeuvres RÃ©centes de Marcel Breuer, Architecte.â Lâarchitecture dâaujordâhui (July 1946): 3-26.
âOn the Cover: The Geller House.â Empire State Architect (July/August 1947).
âSulla Media de Sogni di un Cittadino Americano.â Domus (1949).
âSymmetrical Cantilevers on Asymmetrical Base.â House and Home (January 1952): 119-124.
âTheater Arts Center: The Way to Solve a Complex Problem is to the Make it Simple.â Architectural Forum (December 1952).
âTomorrowâs House Today.â House and Garden (February 1947).
âThe Tompkins House, Hewlett Harbor, Long Island.â Architectural Record (September 1947).
âTwo Modern Summer Cottages (Blueprints for Tomorrow).â House and Garden (ca. 1948): 62.
âWohnhaus mit aufgehÃ¤ngtem Balkon.â Bauen + Wohnen (1949). [German]
Journal Issues Devoted to Breuer
Bouwkundig Weekblad Architectura, no. 40, 5 (October 1929).
Cobouw, no.12 (22 March 1957).
Cobouw, no.13 (29 March 1957).
Nuestra Arquitectura 9 (September 1947).
Process: Architecture 32 (September 1982).
Selected Writings by Breuer
âForm Funktionâ (lecture originally delivered at the Bauhaus in 1923).
âFurnishing and the Contemporary House.â [handwritten manuscript]
âHorizontâ (the blue horizon), n.d.
âDas innere des hausesâ [lecture originally delivered in Delft, Holland, 1931]
Introduction to The Work of Architects Olgyay & Olgyay. New York: Reinhold, Pub. Corp., .
âModern Architecture.â [typed manuscript]
âMust Architecture be Sterile?â [typed manuscript]
âOn Architecture and Material.â [typed manuscript of article published in Circle, 1936].
âOn a Design of a Binuclear House.â [typed manuscript of article published in California Arts and Architecture (Dec. 1943)]
âOn Paul Klee.â [typed manuscript]
âOn Reorganization of the Bauhaus in 1923.â [typed manuscript]
Preface to Living Architecture: Egyptian, ed. By Kenenth Martin LEake. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
âStuyvesant Six: A Redevelopment Study.â Pencil Points (June 1944).
âTell Me, What is Modern Architecture?â House and Garden, April 1940.
âWo stehen wir?â [lecture originally delivered in ZÃ¼rich, 27 Apr 1934]
- Marcel Breuer Digital Archive, Syracuse University
From the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution:
â" The Marcel Breuer Papers Online consist of digitized primary source documents, including biographical material, correspondence, business and financial records, interviews, notes, writings, sketches, project files, exhibition files, photographs, and printed material
â" A Finding Aid to the Marcel Breuer Papers, by archivist Jean Fitzgerald, contains an excellent and extensive biography and chronology based on the primary source collection in the Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C.
â" Marcel Breuer: A Centennial Celebration is the online version of a 2002 exhibition.
- Marcel Breuer, Saint John's Abbey and University
- Marcel Breuer, 1902-1981. The Breuer Lectures Collection: An Inventory (Harvard University)
- Marcel Breuer at Saint John's: The architect used Gothic inspiration to create a Modernist campus from the Chronicle of Higher Education
- Newspaper articles and archival images from the College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University Digital Image Library "Vivarium"
- Current works of former Breuer collaborators and associates Michele Michahelles and Mario Jossa
- Kniffin House, 1948