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Avant-garde (French pronunciation: ​[avÉ'̃ É¡aʁd]) is French for "vanguard". The term is commonly used in French, English, and German to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art and culture.

Avant-garde represents a pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The notion of the existence of the avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Postmodernism posits that the age of the constant pushing of boundaries is no longer with us and that avant-garde has little to no applicability in the age of Postmodern art.

Avant Garde: Visual artists



  • Pierre Alechinsky (Belgian artist, member of the CoBrA movement)
  • Alexander Archipenko (Ukrainian sculptor)
  • Magdalena Abakanowicz (Polish sculptor)
  • Hans Bellmer (German Artist)
  • Joseph Beuys (German Artist)
  • Francisco Bores (Spanish painter)
  • Constantin BrâncuÈ™i (sculptor)
  • Georges Braque (painter)
  • David Burliuk (painter, illustrator)
  • Wladimir Burliuk (illustrator, Jack of Diamonds)
  • Giorgio de Chirico (painter)
  • Joseph Csaky (Hungarian-French sculptor)
  • Salvador Dalí (Spanish painter)
  • Jean Dubuffet (French painter)
  • Marcel Duchamp (French artist)
  • Naum Gabo (sculptor)
  • Pablo Gargallo (Spanish sculptor)
  • Paul Gauguin(P GO)
  • Alberto Giacometti (sculptor)
  • Albert Gleizes (French painter and theorist)
  • Julio González (Spanish sculptor)
  • Natalia Goncharova (Russian painter)
  • Arshile Gorky (painter)
  • George Grosz (painter)
  • Asger Jorn (Danish artist, member of the CoBrA movement)
  • Wassily Kandinsky (Russian artist)
  • Allan Kaprow (painter/happenings)
  • Roger Kemp (Pioneer Australian abstractionist)
  • Frederick John Kiesler (designer), (sculptor), (visual artist)
  • Willem de Kooning (painter)
  • Fernand Léger (painter)
  • El Lissitzky (Russian artist)
  • Kazimir Malevich (Russian artist)
  • Agnes Martin (painter)
  • Henri Matisse (painter)
  • Jean Metzinger (French painter and theorist)
  • Joan Miró (Spanish painter and sculptor)
  • Piet Mondrian (Dutch artist)
  • Henry Moore (sculptor)
  • Barnett Newman (painter)
  • Georgia O'Keeffe (American artist)
  • Claes Oldenburg (sculptor)
  • Yoko Ono (Japanese-American sculptor/installation artist/musician)
  • Francis Picabia (painter)
  • Pablo Picasso (Spanish painter and sculptor)
  • Antoine Pevsner (sculptor)
  • Jackson Pollock (painter)
  • Robert Rauschenberg (painter)
  • Man Ray (painter and visual artist)
  • Ad Reinhardt (painter)
  • Jean-Paul Riopelle (Canadian artist)
  • Alexander Rodchenko (Russian artist)
  • Olga Rozanova (Russian artist)
  • David Smith (sculptor)
  • Kenneth Snelson (sculptor)
  • Frank Stella (painter)
  • Vladimir Tatlin (Russian artist)
  • Sergei Tretyakov (Russian artist)
  • Remedios Varo (Mexican-Spanish painter)
  • Wolf Vostell (German Artist)
  • Andy Warhol (American painter and director)
  • Lee Wells (conceptual artist)
  • Wols (German painter and photographer)

Avant Garde: Architects



  • Steve Baer
  • Le Corbusier
  • Norman Foster
  • Buckminster Fuller
  • Frank Gehry
  • Walter Gropius
  • Louis Kahn
  • Rem Koolhaas
  • I. M. Pei
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
  • Eero Saarinen
  • Ettore Sottsass
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Zaha Hadid

Avant Garde: Jazz, composers, performance artists



  • Laurie Anderson (American composer)
  • George Antheil (American composer)
  • Albert Ayler (Free jazz)
  • John Balance (Music Composer, poet)
  • Luciano Berio (Italian composer)
  • Arthur Brown (English rock singer and performer)
  • Pierre Boulez (French composer)
  • Glenn Branca (American guitarist and composer)
  • Günter Brus (Austrian performance artist)
  • John Zorn (American musician and composer)
  • Harold Budd (American composer)
  • John Cage (American composer)
  • Les Claypool (American musician, singer, bassist, film maker, novelist, composer)
  • Ornette Coleman (American jazz musician)
  • John Coltrane (American jazz musician)
  • Conlon Nancarrow (American composer)
  • Tony Conrad (American violinist and composer)
  • Ivor Cutler (Scottish avant-musician and poet)
  • Miles Davis (American jazz musician)
  • Claude Debussy (French composer)
  • Eric Dolphy (American jazz musician)
  • Duke Ellington (American jazz musician, band leader and composer)
  • Don Ellis (American jazz musician, band leader and composer)
  • Brian Eno (English musician and composer)
  • Morton Feldman (American composer)
  • Aaron Funk (Canadian electronic musician)
  • Diamanda Galás (American Musician, composer and performance artist)
  • Philip Glass (American composer)
  • Dave Holland (British jazz musician)
  • Daryl Hayott (American Jazz Musician/Composer)
  • Charles Ives (American composer)
  • Roland Kirk (American jazz musician)
  • Bill Laswell (Avant-Garde musician)
  • György Ligeti (Hungarian/Austrian/Romanian composer)
  • Witold LutosÅ‚awski (Polish composer)
  • Béla Bartók (Hungarian composer)
  • Lydia Lunch (American singer, poet, writer and actress)
  • Angus MacLise (American percussionist)
  • Charles Mingus (American jazz musician)
  • Thelonious Monk (American jazz musician)
  • Max Neuhaus (composer)
  • Hermann Nitsch (Austrian performance artist)
  • Mike Oldfield (English composer)
  • Pauline Oliveros (American composer and accordionist)
  • Yoko Ono (Japanese artist and musician)
  • Harry Partch (American composer and instrument designer)
  • Mike Patton (American musician, singer and composer)
  • Krzysztof Penderecki (Polish composer)
  • Ástor Piazzolla (Argentine Nuevo Tango pioneer)
  • Sun Ra (Free jazz innovator)
  • Steve Reich (American composer)
  • Terry Riley (American composer)
  • Arthur Russell (American musician, singer and composer)
  • Pharoah Sanders (American jazz musician)
  • Erik Satie (French composer and pianist)
  • Pierre Schaeffer (French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist and acoustician)
  • Arnold Schoenberg (Austrian/American composer)
  • Archie Shepp (American jazz musician)
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen (German composer)
  • Igor Stravinsky (Russian composer)
  • David Tudor (American composer)
  • Arto Tunçboyacıyan (Armenian vocalist, multiinstrumentalist)
  • Edgard Varèse (French composer, later naturalized American citizen)
  • David Vorhaus (American electronic composer)
  • Igor Wakhevitch (French composer)
  • Anton Webern (Second Viennese School)
  • Robert Wyatt (English singer and songwriter)
  • Iannis Xenakis (Greek composer and architect)
  • Kathleen Yearwood (Canadian composer)
  • La Monte Young (American composer)
  • Frank Zappa (American composer, guitarist and satirist)
  • Autopsia (ex-Yugoslavian/Czech post-industrial band)
  • Amon Düül II (German krautrock band)
  • Arcturus (Norwegian avant-garde band)
  • Maya Beiser (experimental cellist)
  • Captain Beefheart (experimental rock singer)
  • Boredoms (Japanese noise band)
  • Björk (Icelandic musician)
  • Buckethead (American composer and guitarist)
  • Butthole Surfers (American experimental rock band)
  • John Cale (Welsh avant-garde musician)
  • Can (Avant-garde rock band)
  • Coil (British electronic post-industrial band)
  • Cluster (German krautrock group)
  • Luke Chrisinger (American Experimental/post rock/shoegaze musician)
  • Einstürzende Neubauten (German industrial band)
  • Brian Eno (English avant-rock/electronic/ambient musician and producer)
  • Fantomas (band) (Noise metal band)
  • Faust (German krautrock band)
  • Gong (French-English avant-garde/progressive rock band)
  • Half Japanese (American alternative band)
  • Hella (band) (American avant-garde/experimental band)
  • Henry Cow (British avant-garde/progressive rock band)
  • Isis (band) (American post-metal band)
  • Iwrestledabearonce (American progressive/avant-garde metal band)
  • Jonathan Davis and the SFA (American avant-garde band)
  • Kayo Dot (American avant-rock/metal band)
  • Kraftwerk (German electronic/krautrock group)
  • The Mars Volta (American experimental/fusion rock band)
  • The Melvins (American experimental rock)
  • Meshuggah (Swedish experimental/progressive metal band)
  • Moondog (American avant-garde artist)
  • Neurosis (American sludge/drone/post-metal band)
  • The Observatory (Singaporean experimental rock band)
  • Ours To Destroy (avant-garde folk rock band)
  • Pan.Thy.Monium (Swedish progressive metal band)
  • Pere Ubu (American post-punk band)
  • Art Bears (British avant-rock band)
  • Pinkly Smooth (American punk band)
  • Public Image Ltd (British post-punk band)
  • Ram-Zet (Norwegian avant-garde metal band)
  • Rasputina (experimental rock band)
  • Recoil (band) (British avant-garde/electronic musical project)
  • The Residents (American avant-rock band)
  • Scars on Broadway (Experimental rock band)
  • Scott Walker (American experimental avant-garde pop musician)
  • Sigh (Japanese progressive/avant-garde black metal band)
  • Sleepytime Gorilla Museum (American avant-garde metal/rock group)
  • Slicing Grandpa (Experimental rock band)
  • Soft Machine (English avant-garde/progressive rock band)
  • Sonic Youth (American alternative band)
  • Sunn O))) (American drone/metal/ambient band)
  • Swans (American post-punk/No Wave band)
  • Throbbing Gristle (English industrial band)
  • Unexpect (Canadian avant-garde metal group)
  • Mr. Bungle (American avant garde metal group)
  • The Velvet Underground (American avant-garde/protopunk band)
  • Lou Reed (American alternative/avant-garde/protopunk musician)
  • Patti Smith (American protopunk singer)
  • Vernian Process (American steampunk/avant-garde band)
  • Uz jsme doma (Czech Avant-Garde Band)
  • What's He Building in There? (Canadian Avant-garde metal group)
  • Waltari (Finnish progressive/avant-garde/alternative metal band)

Avant Garde: authors, playwrights, actors, directors (theater) and poets



  • JoAnne Akalaitis (writer/director/ Mabou Mines)
  • Guillaume Apollinaire (writer)
  • Antonin Artaud (French actor, director and theorist)
  • Hugo Ball (German writer, dadaist)
  • J. G. Ballard (British author)
  • Georges Bataille (French writer and essayist)
  • Julian Beck (actor/director/ The Living Theater)
  • Samuel Beckett (Irish playwright)
  • Maurice Blanchot (French writer and essayist)
  • Jorge Luis Borges (Argentine short story writer)
  • André Breton (French author)
  • William S. Burroughs (author, poet, essayist)
  • Jim Carroll (avant-garde poet)
  • Louis-Ferdinand Celine (author)
  • Gregory Corso (experimental Beat poet)
  • Jayne Cortez (American poet and spoken-word artist)
  • E. E. Cummings (poet)
  • Jeffrey Daniels (American Poet)
  • Guy Debord (French author, and philosopher)
  • John Dos Passos (American writer)
  • Richard Foreman (American Director/designer/playwright/compositional theater maker)
  • Akasegawa Genpei (Japanese artist and novelist)
  • Allen Ginsberg (poet)
  • Witold Gombrowicz (writer)
  • Jerzy Grotowski (director)
  • Stewart Home (writer)
  • Alfred Jarry (writer)
  • James Joyce (writer)
  • Franz Kafka (writer)
  • Tadeusz Kantor (director)
  • Lajos Kassák (1887â€"1967, Hungarian avant-garde poet and painter)
  • Srečko Kosovel (Slovene poet)
  • Jackson Mac Low, American poet
  • Mina Loy (British painter/poet)
  • Dimitris Lyacos (writer/playwright/poet)
  • Judith Malina (actor/director/ The Living Theater)
  • Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (founder of Italian futurism)
  • Vladimir Mayakovsky (Russian futurist writer and poet)
  • Vsevolod Meyerhold (director)
  • Henry Miller (author)
  • Yukio Mishima (writer, playwright, poet)
  • Vladimir Nabokov (Russian author)
  • Anaïs Nin (French diarist, author, poet)
  • Ezra Pound (American poet)
  • Alain Robbe-Grillet (French author, playwright, filmmaker)
  • Raymond Roussel (writer)
  • Bruno Schulz (writer)
  • Gertrude Stein (author, essayist)
  • Ellen Stewart (theater director/ La MaMa)
  • Jean Tardieu (artist, playwright, poet)
  • Tristan Tzara (Romanian poet)
  • William Carlos Williams (American poet)
  • Miroslav Wanek (Czech composer, poet, singer)
  • StanisÅ‚aw Ignacy Witkiewicz (writer)
  • Robert Wilson (director)
  • Virginia Woolf (English author)

Avant garde: photographers, filmmakers, video artists, directors



  • John Abraham (Indian Movie Director)
  • Kenneth Anger (American filmmaker)
  • Diane Arbus (American photographer)
  • Berenice Abbott (American photographer)
  • Matthew Barney (American performance artist, filmmaker, photographer)
  • Jordan Belson (American filmmaker)
  • Stan Brakhage (American filmmaker)
  • Luis Buñuel (Spanish filmmaker)
  • John Cassavetes (American filmmaker)
  • VÄ›ra Chytilová (Czech filmmaker)
  • Jean Cocteau (French poet, artist, filmmaker)
  • Bruce Connor (American filmmaker, sculptor, and painter)
  • Tony Conrad (American video artist, experimental filmmaker)
  • Maya Deren (American filmmaker)
  • Nathaniel Dorsky (American filmmaker
  • Germaine Dulac (French filmmaker)
  • Rainer Werner Fassbinder (German filmmaker)
  • David Gatten (American filmmaker)
  • Ernie Gehr (American filmmaker)
  • Jean-Luc Godard (French filmmaker)
  • Philippe Grandrieux (French filmmaker)
  • Peter Hutton (American filmmaker)
  • Ken Jacobs (American filmmaker)
  • Alejandro Jodorowsky (Chilean director)
  • Mary Jordan (American filmmaker, performance artist, activist)
  • Harmony Korine (American filmmaker)
  • Kurt Kren (Austrian filmmaker)
  • Jørgen Leth (Danish filmmaker)
  • David Lynch (American filmmaker)
  • Robert Mapplethorpe (American photographer)
  • Jonas Mekas (Lithuanian-American filmmaker)
  • Otto Muehl (Austrian filmmaker)
  • Dudley Murphy (Experimental filmmaker)
  • RyÅ«tarō Nakamura (Japanese director and animator)
  • Nikos Nikolaidis (Greek filmmaker)
  • Mamoru Oshii (Japanese filmmaker)
  • Pier Paolo Pasolini (Italian filmmaker, poet and writer)
  • Man Ray (American/French, photographer and filmmaker)
  • Alain Resnais (French filmmaker)
  • Jean Rouch (Ethnographic filmmaker)
  • Rudolf Schwarzkogler (Austrian filmmaker)
  • Jack Smith (American filmmaker)
  • Michael Snow (Canadian artist, filmmaker)
  • Sion Sono (Japanese filmmaker, dramatist and poet)
  • Perry Mark Stratychuk (Canadian filmmaker, poet and writer)
  • Phil Solomon (American filmmaker)
  • Léopold Survage (French artist of Russian-Danish-Finnish descent)
  • ShÅ«ji Terayama (Japanese dramatist, filmmaker, poet and writer)
  • Lars von Trier (Danish filmmaker)
  • Andy Warhol (American artist)
  • Peter Weibel (Austrian filmmaker)
  • Joel-Peter Witkin (American photographer)
  • Fred Worden (American filmmaker)
  • Kansuke Yamamoto (Japanese photographer and poet)

Avant garde: Dancers and Choreographers



  • Loie Fuller (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Isadora Duncan (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Vaslav Nijinsky (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Léonide Massine (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Ruth St. Denis (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Ted Shawn (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Doris Humphrey (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Charles Weidman (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Hanya Holm (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Helen Tamiris (pioneer of modern dance)
  • Mary Wigman (German dancer, choreographer)
  • Martha Graham (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Anna Sokolow (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Merce Cunningham (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Alwin Nikolais (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Twyla Tharp (American choreographer, dancer)
  • Lucinda Childs (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Deborah Hay (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Anna Halprin (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Yvonne Rainer (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Pina Bausch (German dancer, choreographer)
  • Trisha Brown (American dancer, choreographer)
  • Erick Hawkins (American dancer, choreographer)

Other



  • Yuri Landman (Experimental instrument builder)

See also



  • Russian avant-garde
  • Bohemianism
  • Intelligentsia
  • Experimental film
  • Experimental music
  • Experimental theatre
  • Experimental literature
  • Modernism

Sources



  • Cage, John. 1961. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. Unaltered reprints: Weslyan University press, 1966 (pbk), 1967 (cloth), 1973 (pbk ["First Wesleyan paperback edition"], 1975 (unknown binding); Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971; London: Calder & Boyars, 1968, 1971, 1973 ISBN 0-7145-0526-9 (cloth) ISBN 0-7145-1043-2 (pbk). London: Marion Boyars, 1986, 1999 ISBN 0-7145-1043-2 (pbk); [n.p.]: Reprint Services Corporation, 1988 (cloth) ISBN 99911-780-1-5 [In particular the essays "Experimental Music", pp. 7â€"12, and "Experimental Music: Doctrine", pp. 13â€"17.]
  • Cope, David. 1997. Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. New York, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-864737-8.
  • Mauceri, Frank X. 1997. "From Experimental Music to Musical Experiment". Perspectives of New Music 35, no. 1 (Winter): 187-204.
  • Meyer, Leonard B. 1994. Music, the Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-52143-5
  • Nicholls, David. 1998. "Avant-garde and Experimental Music." In Cambridge History of American Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45429-8
  • Nyman, Michael. 1974. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-871200-5. Second edition, Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-65297-9
  • A. L. Rees, A History of Experimental Film and Video (BFI, 1999).
  • Malcolm Le Grice, Abstract Film and Beyond (MIT, 1977).
  • Scott MacDonald, A Critical Cinema, Volumes 1, 2 and 3 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988, 1992 and 1998).
  • Scott MacDonald, Avant-Garde Film: Motion Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  • James Peterson, Dreams of Chaos, Visions of Order: Understanding the American Avant-Garde Cinema (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994).
  • Jack Sargeant, Naked Lens: Beat Cinema (Creation, 1997).
  • P. Adams Sitney, Visionary Film: The American Avant-Garde, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974).
  • Michael O’Pray, Avant-Garde Film: Forms, Themes and Passions (London: Wallflower Press, 2003).
  • David Curtis (ed.), A Directory of British Film and Video Artists (Arts Council, 1999).
  • David Curtis, Experimental Cinema - A Fifty Year Evolution. (London. Studio Vista. 1971)
  • Wheeler Winston Dixon, The Exploding Eye: A Re-Visionary History of 1960s American Experimental Cinema. (Albany, NY. State University of New York Press, 1997)
  • Wheeler Winston Dixon and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster (eds.) Experimental Cinema - The Film Reader, (London: Routledge, 2002)
  • Stan Brakhage. Film at Wit's End - Essays on American Independent Filmmakers. (Edinburgh, Polygon. 1989)
  • Stan Brakhage. Essential Brakhage - Selected Writings on Filmmaking. (New York, McPherson. 2001)
  • Parker Tyler, Underground Film: A Critical History. (New York: Grove Press, 1969)
  • Saunders, Frances Stonor, The cultural cold war: the CIA and the world of arts and letters (New York: New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., 2000) ISBN 1-56584-596-X
  • O'Connor, Francis V. Jackson Pollock [exhibition catalogue] (New York, Museum of Modern Art, [1967]) OCLC 165852
  • The Philosophy and Politics of Abstract Expressionism 1940-1960 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2000 ISBN 0-521-65154-9
  • Tapié, Michel. Hans Hofmann: peintures 1962 : 23 avril-18 mai 1963. (Paris: Galerie Anderson-Mayer, 1963.) [exhibition catalogue and commentary] OCLC: 62515192
  • Tapié, Michel. Pollock (Paris, P. Facchetti, 1952) OCLC: 30601793
  • Jeffrey Wechsler (2007). Pathways and Parallels: Roads to Abstract Expressionism. New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries. ISBN 0-9759954-9-9. 
  • Graham, Martha (1991). Blood Memory: An autobiography. NYC: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-26503-4. 
  • Freedman, Russell (1998). Martha Graham: A Dancer's Life. NYC: Clarion Books. ISBN 0-395-74655-8. 
  • Horosko, Marian (2002). Martha Graham: The Evolution of Her Dance Theory and Training. Gainesville, FL: Univ. Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2473-0. 
  • Morgan, Barbara (1980). Martha Graham: Sixteen Dances in Photographs. Morgan & Morgan. ISBN 0-87100-176-4. 
  • Tracy, Robert (1997). Goddess - Martha Graham's Dancers Remember. Pompton Plains, NJ: Limelight Editions. ISBN 0-87910-086-9. 
  • Bird, Dorothy; Greenberg, Joyce (2002). Bird's Eye View: Dancing With Martha Graham and on Broadway (reprint ed.). Pittsburgh, PA: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5791-4. 

References



External links



  • Why did Soviet Photographic Avant-garde decline?
  • Definition at Tate Gallery site


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