Edgard Victor Achille Charles VarÃ¨se (French:Â [ÉdÉ¡aËÊ viktÉ"ËÊ aÊil ÊaÊl vaÊÉËz]; also spelled Edgar VarÃ¨se; December 22, 1883 â" November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer who spent the greater part of his career in the United States.
VarÃ¨se's music emphasizes timbre and rhythm and he coined the term "organized sound" in reference to his own musical aesthetic. VarÃ¨se's conception of music reflected his vision of "sound as living matter" and of "musical space as open rather than bounded". He conceived the elements of his music in terms of "sound-masses", likening their organization to the natural phenomenon of crystalization. VarÃ¨se thought that "to stubbornly conditioned ears, anything new in music has always been called noise", and he posed the question, "what is music but organized noises?"
Although his complete surviving works only last about three hours, he has been recognised as an influence by several major composers of the late 20th century. VarÃ¨se saw potential in using electronic mediums for sound production, and his use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the "Father of Electronic Music" while Henry Miller described him as "The stratospheric Colossus of Sound".
Life and career
Edgard Victor Achille Charles VarÃ¨se was born in Paris, but when he was only a few weeks old, he was sent to be raised by his great-uncle and other relations in the small town of Le Villars in the Burgundy region of France. There he developed a very strong attachment to his maternal grandfather, Claude Cortot (also grandfather to the pianist Alfred Cortot, a first cousin of VarÃ¨se). His affection for his grandfather outshone anything he felt for his own parents.
After being reclaimed by his parents in the late 1880s, in 1893 young Edgard was forced to relocate with them to Turin, Italy, in part, to live amongst his paternal relatives, since his father was of Italian descent. It was here that he had his first real musical lessons, with the long-time director of Turin's conservatory, Giovanni Bolzoni. In 1895 he composed his first opera, Martin Pas, which has since been lost. Now in his teen years, Edgard, influenced by his father, an engineer, enrolled at the Polytechnic of Turin and started studying engineering, as his father disapproved of his interest in music, and demanded an absolute dedication to engineering studies. This conflict grew bigger and bigger, especially after the death of his mother in 1900, until in 1903 VarÃ¨se left home for Paris.
From 1904 he was a student at the Schola Cantorum (founded by pupils of CÃ©sar Franck), where his teachers included Albert Roussel; afterwards he went to study composition with Charles-Marie Widor at the Paris Conservatoire. In this period he composed a number of ambitious orchestral works, but these were only performed by VarÃ¨se in piano transcriptions. One such work was his Rhapsodie romane, from about 1905, which was inspired by the Romanesque architecture of the cathedral of St. Philibert in Tournus. In 1907 he moved to Berlin, and in the same year he married the actress Suzanne Bing, with whom he had one child, a daughter. They divorced in 1913.
During these years, VarÃ¨se became acquainted with Erik Satie and Richard Strauss, as well as with Claude Debussy and Ferruccio Busoni, who particularly influenced him at the time. He also gained the friendship and support of Romain Rolland and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, whose Å'dipus und die Sphinx he began setting as an opera that was never completed. On 5 January 1911, the first performance of his symphonic poem Bourgogne was held in Berlin; the only one of his early orchestral works to be properly performed in his lifetime, it caused a scandal.
After being invalided out of the French Army during World War I, he moved to the United States in December 1915.
Early years in the United States
In 1918 VarÃ¨se made his debut in America conducting the Grande messe des morts by Berlioz.
He spent the first few years in the United States, where he was a Romany Marie's cafÃ© regular in Greenwich Village, meeting important contributors to American music, promoting his vision of new electronic art music instruments, conducting orchestras, and founding the short-lived New Symphony Orchestra. In New York he met LÃ©on Theremin and other composers exploring the boundaries of electronic music.
It was also about this time that VarÃ¨se began work on his first composition in the United States, AmÃ©riques, which was finished in 1921 but would remain unperformed until 1926, when it was premiered by the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski (who had already performed Hyperprism in 1924 and would premiere Arcana in 1927). Virtually all the works he had written in Europe were either lost or destroyed in a Berlin warehouse fire, so in the U.S. he was starting again from scratch. The only surviving work from his early period appears to be the song Un grand sommeil noir, a setting of Paul Verlaine. (He still retained Bourgogne, but destroyed the score in a fit of depression many years later.) It was at the completion of this work that VarÃ¨se, along with Carlos Salzedo, founded the International Composers' Guild, dedicated to the performances of new compositions of both American and European composers. The ICG's manifesto in July 1921 included the statement that
- "The present day composers refuse to die. They have realised the necessity of banding together and fighting for the right of each individual to secure a fair and free presentation of his work".
In 1922, VarÃ¨se visited Berlin where he founded a similar German organisation with Busoni.
VarÃ¨se contributed a poem to the Dadaist magazine 391 after an evening of drinking with Francis Picabia on the Brooklyn Bridge. The same magazine claimed that he was orchestrating a "Cold Faucet Dance". Later that year he met Louise McCutcheon (then Norton), who edited another Dadaist magazine, Rogue, with her then-husband. She was to become Louise VarÃ¨se and a celebrated translator of French poetry whose versions of the work of Arthur Rimbaud for James Laughlin's New Directions imprint were particularly influential.
VarÃ¨se composed many of his pieces for orchestral instruments and voices for performance under the auspices of the ICG during its six year existence. Specifically, during the first half of the 1920s, he composed Offrandes, Hyperprism, Octandre, and IntÃ©grales.
He took American citizenship in October 1927. After arriving in the USA VarÃ¨se commonly used the form 'Edgar' for his first name but reverted to 'Edgard', not entirely consistently, from the 1940s.
Life in Paris
In 1928, VarÃ¨se returned to Paris to alter one of the parts in AmÃ©riques to include the recently constructed ondes Martenot. Around 1930, he composed his most famous non-electronic piece entitled Ionisation, the first to feature solely percussion instruments. Although it was composed with pre-existing instruments, Ionisation was an exploration of new sounds and methods to create them.
In 1928 when he was asked about jazz, he said it was not representative of America but instead was, "a negro product, exploited by the Jews. All of its composers here are Jews," meaning Gruenberg and Boulanger students including Copland and Blitzstein.
In 1931, he was the best man at the wedding of his friend Nicolas Slonimsky in Paris. In 1933, while still in Paris, he wrote to the Guggenheim Foundation and Bell Laboratories in an attempt to receive a grant to develop an electronic music studio. His next composition, Ecuatorial, was completed in 1934, and contained parts for two fingerboard Theremin cellos, along with winds, percussion, and a bass singer. Anticipating the successful receipt of one of his grants, VarÃ¨se eagerly returned to the United States to realize his electronic music. Slonimsky conducted its premiere in New York on April 15, 1934.
Back in the United States
VarÃ¨se soon left New York City for Santa Fe, San Francisco and Los Angeles. In 1936 he wrote Density 21.5. He also promoted the theremin in his Western travels, and demonstrated one at a lecture at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque on November 12, 1936. (The University has an RCA theremin in its archives which may be the same instrument.) By the time VarÃ¨se returned to New York in late 1938, Theremin had returned to Russia. This devastated VarÃ¨se, who had hoped to work with him on a refinement of his instrument.
He was approached by music producer Jack Skurnick resulting in EMS Recordings #401. The record was the first release of Integrales, Density 21.5, Ionization and Octandre and featured Rene le Roy, flute, the Juilliard Percussion Orchestra and the New York Wind Ensemble conducted by Frederic Waldman.
When, in the late 1950s, VarÃ¨se was approached by a publisher about making Ecuatorial available, there were very few thereminsâ"let alone fingerboard thereminsâ"to be found, so he rewrote/relabelled the part for ondes Martenot. This new version was premiered in 1961. (Ecuatorial has been performed again with fingerboard theremins in Buffalo, NY in 2002 and at the Holland Festival, Amsterdam, in 2009.)
Background in science
While living with his father, an engineer, Edgard was pushed to further his scientific understanding at the Institute Technique, a high school in Italy that specialized in teaching mathematics and science. It was here where Edgard became particularly interested in the works of Leonardo da Vinci. It was through Edgard's love of science that he began to study sound, as he later recalled "When I was about twenty, I came across a definition of music that seemed suddenly to throw light on my gropings toward music I sensed could exist. JÃ³zef Maria Hoene-WroÅski, the Polish physicist, chemist, musicologist and philosopher of the first half of the nineteenth century, defined music as 'the corporealization of the intelligence that is in sounds.' It was a new and exciting conception and to me the first that started me thinking of music as spatialâ"as moving bodies of sound in space, a conception I gradually made my own."
Edgard began his music studies with Vincent d'Indy (conducting) at the Schola Cantorum de Paris from 1903â"05 and later began studying at the Conservatoire de Paris under Charles-Marie Widor from 1905â"07. While he was in Paris, VarÃ¨se had another pivotal experience during a performance of Beethoven's Seventh Symphony at the Salle Pleyel. The story goes that during the Scherzo Movement, perhaps due to the resonance of the hall, he had the experience of the music breaking up and projecting in space. It was an idea that stayed with him for the rest of his life, that he would later describe as consisting of "sound objects, floating in space."
From the late 1920s to the end of the 1930s VarÃ¨se's principal creative energies went into two ambitious projects which were never realized, and much of whose material was destroyed, though some elements from them seem to have gone into smaller works. One was a large-scale stage work called by different names at different times, but principally The One-All-Alone or Astronomer (L'Astronome). This was originally to be based on North American Indian legends; later it became a futuristic drama of world catastrophe and instantaneous communication with the star Sirius. This second form, on which VarÃ¨se worked in Paris in 1928â"1932, had a libretto by Alejo Carpentier, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes and Robert Desnos. According to Carpentier, a substantial amount of this work was written but VarÃ¨se abandoned it in favour of a new treatment in which he hoped to collaborate with Antonin Artaud. Artaud's libretto Il n'y a plus de firmament was written for VarÃ¨se's project and sent to him after he had returned to the U.S. but by this time VarÃ¨se had turned to a second huge project.
This second project was to be a choral symphony entitled Espace. In its original conception the text for the chorus was to be written by AndrÃ© Malraux. Later VarÃ¨se settled on a multi-lingual text of hieratic phrases to be sung by choirs situated in Paris, Moscow, Peking and New York, synchronized to create a global radiophonic event. VarÃ¨se sought input on the text from Henry Miller, who suggests in The Air-Conditioned Nightmare that this grandiose conceptionâ"also ultimately unrealizedâ"eventually metamorphosed into DÃ©serts. With both these huge projects VarÃ¨se felt ultimately frustrated by the lack of electronic instruments to realize his aural visions. Nevertheless he used some of the material from Espace in his short Ãtude pour espace, virtually the only work that had appeared from his pen for over ten years when it was premiered in 1947. According to Chou Wen-chung, VarÃ¨se made various contradictory revisions to Ãtude pour espace which made it impossible to perform again, but the 2009 Holland Festival, which offered a 'complete works' of VarÃ¨se over the weekend of 12â"14 June 2009, persuaded Chou to make a new performing version (using similar brass and woodwind forces to DÃ©serts and making use of spatialized sound projection). This was premiered at the Gashouder concert hall, Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam by Asko/SchÃ¶nberg Ensemble and Cappella Amsterdam on Sunday 14 June, conducted by Peter EÃ¶tvÃ¶s.
By the early 1950s, VarÃ¨se was in dialogue with a new generation of composers, such as Pierre Boulez and Luigi Dallapiccola. When he returned to France to finalize the tape sections of DÃ©serts, Pierre Schaeffer helped arrange for suitable facilities. The first performance of the combined orchestral and tape sound composition came as part of an ORTF broadcast concert, between pieces by Mozart and Tchaikovsky and received a hostile reaction.
Le Corbusier was commissioned by Philips to present a pavilion at the 1958 World Fair and insisted (against the sponsors' resistance) on working with VarÃ¨se, who developed his PoÃ¨me Ã©lectronique for the venue, where it was heard by an estimated two million people. Using 400 speakers separated throughout the interior, VarÃ¨se created a sound and space installation geared towards experiencing sound as it moves through space. Received with mixed reviews, this piece challenged audience expectations and traditional means of composing, breathing life into electronic synthesis and presentation.
In 1962 he was asked to join the Royal Swedish Academy of Music, and in 1963 he received the premier Koussevitzky International Recording Award. In 1965 he received the sixth annual Edward MacDowell Medal for outstanding contribution to the arts from The MacDowell Colony.
In his formative years, VarÃ¨se was greatly impressed by Medieval and Renaissance Music (in his career he founded and conducted several choirs devoted to this repertoire) and the music of Alexander Scriabin, Erik Satie, Claude Debussy, Hector Berlioz and Richard Strauss. There are also clear influences or reminiscences of Stravinsky's early works, specifically Petrushka and The Rite of Spring, on Arcana.
He claimed to have been inspired by the writings on music of JÃ³zef Maria Hoene-WroÅski, and especially the Polish savant's statement that the object of music is "the corporealization of the intelligence that is in sound". He was also impressed by the ideas of Busoni, who christened him L'illustro futuro.
Students and influence
According to George Perle "his partitioning of the octave in the first ten bars, places VarÃ¨se along with Scriabin and the Schoenberg circle, among the revolutionary composers whose work initiates the beginning of a new mainstream tradition in the music of our century."
VarÃ¨se's best known student was the Chinese-born composer Chou Wen-chung (b. 1923), who moved to the United States, met VarÃ¨se in 1949 and assisted him in his later years. He became the executor of VarÃ¨se's estate following the composer's death. He edited and completed a number of VarÃ¨se's works. For other pupils of VarÃ¨se, See: List of music students by teacher: T to Z#Edgard VarÃ¨se.
Influence in classical music
Composers who have claimed, or can be demonstrated to have been influenced by VarÃ¨se, include Milton Babbitt, Harrison Birtwistle, Pierre Boulez, John Cage, Morton Feldman, Roberto Gerhard, Olivier Messiaen, Luigi Nono, John Palmer, Krzysztof Penderecki, Silvestre Revueltas, Wolfgang Rihm, Alfred Schnittke, William Grant Still, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Iannis Xenakis, Frank Zappa and John Zorn.
On July 19 and 20, 2010, Lincoln Center in New York City dedicated two evenings to a nearly complete retrospective of his music, involving leading contemporary musicians directed by Steven Schick in the music for ensembles and the New York Philharmonic directed by Alan Gilbert in the orchestral works.
Influence in popular music
VarÃ¨se's emphasis on timbre, rhythm, and new technologies inspired a generation of musicians who came of age during the 1960s and 1970s. One of VarÃ¨se's biggest fans was the American guitarist and composer Frank Zappa, who, upon hearing a copy of The Complete Works of Edgard VarÃ¨se, Vol. 1 (originally released on Columbia Records in 1960), which included IntÃ©grales, Density 21.5, Ionisation, and Octandre, became obsessed with the composer's music. On his 15th birthday, December 21, 1955, Zappa's mother, Rosemarie, allowed him a call to VarÃ¨se as a present. At the time VarÃ¨se was in Brussels, Belgium, so Zappa spoke to VarÃ¨se's wife Louise instead. Eventually Zappa and VarÃ¨se spoke on the phone, and they discussed the possibility of meeting each other. Although this meeting never took place, Zappa did receive a letter from VarÃ¨se. VarÃ¨se's spirit of experimentation with which he redefined the bounds of what was possible in music lived on in Zappa's long and prolific career. Zappa's final project was The Rage and the Fury, a recording of the works of VarÃ¨se. In the linernotes of his early albums, he quoted the ICG manifesto, "The present day composer refuses to die." In 1981, Zappa produced and hosted "A Tribute to Edgard VarÃ¨se" at the Palladium in New York City, an event at which Louise was an honored guest.
Another admirer was the rock/jazz group Chicago, whose pianist/keyboardist Robert Lamm credited VarÃ¨se as a strong influence in his songwriting. In tribute, one of Lamm's songs was called "A Hit By VarÃ¨se".
The tenth track of Brazilian-born electronic musician Amon Tobin's 2002 album Out from Out Where, titled Proper Hoodidge, consists largely of material from PoÃ¨me Ã©lectronique.
- The record label VarÃ¨se Sarabande Records is named after him.
- The rock band Chicago recorded the track A Hit By VarÃ¨se on their album Chicago V (1972).
- Composer John Zorn has released six cds dedicated to VarÃ¨se and Antonin Artaud: "Astronome", "Moonchild", "Six Litanies for Heliogabalus", "The Crucible", "Ipsissimus" and "Templars: In Sacred Blood".
- Alan Clayson included an arrangement of 'Un Grand Sommeil Noir' on his album One Dover Soul (2012)
Musical philosophy and composition
On several occasions, VarÃ¨se speculated on the specific ways in which technology would change music in the future. In 1936, he predicted musical machines that would be able to perform music as soon as a composer inputs his score. These machines would be able to play "any number of frequencies," and therefore the score of the future would need to be "seismographic" in order to illustrate their full potential. In 1939, he expanded on this concept, declaring that with this machine "anyone will be able to press a button to release music exactly as the composer wrote itâ"exactly like opening up a book." VarÃ¨se would not realize these predictions until his tape experiments in the 1950s and 60s.
Some of Edgard VarÃ¨se's works, particularly Arcana make use of the 'idÃ©e fixe', a fixed theme, repeated certain times in a work. The 'idÃ©e fixe' was most famously used by Hector Berlioz in his Symphonie fantastique; it is generally not transposed, differentiating it from the leitmotiv, used by Richard Wagner.
- Un grand sommeil noir, song to a text by Paul Verlaine for voice and piano (1906)
- AmÃ©riques for large orchestra (1918â"1921; revised 1927)
- Offrandes for soprano and chamber orchestra (poems by Vicente Huidobro and JosÃ© Juan Tablada)(1921)
- Hyperprism for wind and percussion (1922â"1923)
- Octandre for seven wind instruments and double bass (1923)
- IntÃ©grales for wind and percussion (1924â"1925)
- Arcana for large orchestra (1925â"1927)
- Ionisation for 13 percussion players (1929â"1931)
- Ecuatorial for bass voice (or unison male chorus), brass, organ, percussion and theremins (revised for ondes-martenots in 1961) (text by Francisco XimÃ©nez) (1932â"1934)
- Density 21.5 for solo flute (1936)
- Tuning Up for orchestra (sketched 1946; completed by Chou Wen-chung, 1998)
- Ãtude pour espace for soprano solo, chorus, 2 pianos and percussion (1947; orchestrated and arranged by Chou Wen-chung for wind instruments and percussion for spatialized live performance, 2009) (texts by Kenneth Patchen, JosÃ© Juan Tablada and St. John of the Cross)
- Dance for Burgess for chamber ensemble (1949)
- DÃ©serts for wind, percussion and electronic tape (1950â"1954)
- La procession de verges for electronic tape (soundtrack for Around and About Joan MirÃ², directed by Thomas Bouchard) (1955)
- PoÃ¨me Ã©lectronique for electronic tape (1957â"1958)
- Nocturnal for soprano, male chorus and orchestra, text adapted from The House of Incest by AnaÃ¯s Nin (1961), revised and completed posthumously by Chou Wen-chung (1968)
- Bernard, Jonathan W. (1987). The Music of Edgard VarÃ¨se. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBNÂ 0-300-03515-2.Â
- Entretiens avec Edgar VarÃ¨se par Georges Charbonnier (1954â"55), 2CD INA coll. MÃ©moire Vive (2007)
- Charbonnier, Georges (2007). 8 entretiens avec Edgar VarÃ¨se par Georges Charbonnier (1954â"55) (MP3) (in French). INA MÃ©moire vive. ASINÂ B001KMZ42G.Â Also available as 2 CDs with DÃ©serts by Edgar VarÃ¨se, Orchestre National De France, Hermann Scherchen director, ASIN B001KMZ3ZO.
- Clayson, Alan (2002), Edgard Varese, London: Bobcat Books (Omnibus Press), ISBNÂ 9781860743986Â
- Ouellette, Fernand (1973). Edgard Varese. A Musical Biography. London: Calder and Boyars. ISBNÂ 0714502081.Â
- VarÃ¨se, Edgard (1966). "The Liberation of Sound". Perspectives of New Music 5 (1 (Autumn-Winter)): 11â"19. doi:10.2307/832385.Â . (Excerpts from lectures by VarÃ¨se, compiled and edited with footnotes by Chou Wen-chung.) Reprinted in VarÃ¨se, Edgard (2004). "The Liberation of Sound". In Cox, Christoph; Warner, Daniel. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. Excerpts from lectures (1936-1939-1959-1962), compiled and annotated by Chou Wen-chung. New York: The Continuum International Publishing. ISBNÂ 0826416152. Retrieved 2014-01-20.Â .
- Zappa, Frank (1971). "Edgard Varese: The Idol of My Youth". Stereo Review 1971 (June): 61â"62. Retrieved 2014-01-20.Â
- "Varese, Ultra-Modernist Composer, Prophesies Symphonies in 'Space'". The Lewiston Daily Sun. December 8, 1936.
- Bodian, Alan. "Varese of Sullivan Street - A Composer with a Future". The Village Voice. October 10, 1956.
- "Library Honors Edgar Varese". The Village Voice. December 4, 1957.
- MacDonald, Malcolm (2002). VarÃ¨se: Astronomer in Sound. London: Kahn & Averill. ISBNÂ 1-871-08279-X.Â
- Quotations related to Edgard VarÃ¨se at Wikiquote
- Edgard VarÃ¨se at AllMusic
- BBC.co.uk: Music Profiles: Edgard VarÃ¨se
- Edgard VarÃ¨se:Composer, Sound Sculptor, Visionary edited by Felix Meyer and Heidy Zimmermann (Boydell Press in association with the Sacher Foundation 2006). This large format and profusely illustrated book of essays on the composer was published to coincide with an exhibition at the Museum Tinguely in Basel.
- Interview with musicologist Olivia Mattis about Edgard VarÃ¨se's Ecuatorial and the Theremin Cello
- A Letter to Leon Theremin by Edgard VarÃ¨se
- OHM- The Early Gurus of Electronic Music: Varese
- (French) SoNHoRS: Edgard VarÃ¨se
- A biography on IRCAM's website (French)
- Excerpts from sound archives of VarÃ¨se's works
- WNYC.org: A Musical Tribute to Edgar VarÃ¨se, April 17, 1981