Bettina von Arnim (the Countess of Arnim) (4 April 1785 â" 20 January 1859), born Elisabeth Catharina Ludovica Magdalena Brentano, was a German writer and novelist.
Bettina (as well: Bettine) Brentano was a writer, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist, an illustrator, patron of young talent, and a social activist. She was the archetype of the Romantic eraâs zeitgeist and the crux of many creative relationships of canonical artistic figures. Best known for the company she kept, she numbered among her closest friends Goethe, Beethoven, and PÃ¼ckler and tried to foster artistic agreement among them. Many leading composers of the time, including Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johanna Kinkel, and Johannes Brahms, admired her spirit and talents. As a composer, von Arnim's style was unconventional, molding and melding favorite folk melodies and historical themes with innovative harmonies, phrase lengths, and improvisations that became synonymous with the music of the era. She was closely related to the German writers Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim: the first was her brother, the second her husband. Her daughter Gisela von Arnim became a prominent writer as well.
Family and early life
Bettina von Arnim was born at Frankfurt am Main, into the large family of an Italian merchant. Her grandmother, Sophie von La Roche, was a novelist, and her brother was Clemens Brentano, the great poet known for his lyric poems, libretti, and singspielen. He was a mentor and protector to her and inspired her to read the poetry of the time, especially Goethe.
After being educated at a Ursulines convent school in Fritzlar from 1794 to 1797, Bettina lived for a while with her grandmother at Offenbach am Main and from 1803 to 1806 with her brother-in-law, Friedrich von Savigny, the famous jurist, at Marburg. She formed a friendship with Karoline von GÃ¼nderrode. The two friends acknowledged only natural impulses, laws, and methods of life, and brooded over the âtyrannyâ of conventionalities. In 1806, GÃ¼nderrode committed suicide on account of a passion for the philologist Georg Friedrich Creuzer. In 1807 at Weimar Bettina made the acquaintance of Goethe, for whom she entertained a significant passion, which the poet did not requite, though he entered into correspondence with her. Their friendship came to an abrupt end in 1811, owing to Bettina's behaviour with Goethe's wife.
In 1811 Bettina married Achim von Arnim, the renowned Romantic poet. The couple settled near Berlin and had seven children. Achim died in 1831, but Bettina maintained an active public life. Her passion for Goethe revived, and in 1835, after lengthy discussions with the writer and landscape gardener Hermann von PÃ¼ckler-Muskau, she published her book Goethe's Correspondence with a Child (German: Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde), which purported to be a correspondence between herself and the poet. The book is in large part fictitious. Genuine sonnets of Goethe in it were addressed, not to her, but to Minna Herzlieb. As a work of fiction, the book has been praised.
She continued to write, inspire, and publish until 20 January 1859, when she died in Berlin, aged 73, surrounded by her children.
From 1991 until 31 December 2001, her portrait was printed on the German 5-Mark bill.
During the years of 1806 to 1808, von Arnim helped gather the folk songs that comprised Des Knaben Wunderhorn, the collaborative work of her brother and her future husband, Achim von Arnim, later put to music by Gustav Mahler. The collection became a touchstone of the Romantic musical and poetic style. From 1808 to 1809 she studied voice, composition, and piano in Munich under Peter von Winter and Sebastian Bopp. She published her first song under the pseudonym Beans Beor, which she occasionally used later as well. Bettina sang briefly in the Berliner Singakademie and composed settings of Hellenistic poems by Amalie von Helvig.
Though domestic duties connected to her 1811 marriage to von Arnim diminished her productivity, several art songs from the period have been recovered and have been published in Werke und Briefe. Von Arnim was the first composer to set the poet HÃ¶lderlinâs work to music.
She was a muse to the progressives of Prussia, linked to the socialist movement and an advocate for the oppressed Jewish community. She published two politically dissident works but evaded chastisement because of her friendship with the King of Prussia.
After the 1831 death of her husband, Bettina continued her dedication to the creative community. She published a collection of seven songs in public support of Prussian music director Gaspare Spontini, under duress at the time.
- Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde, 1835 (Goethe's correspondence with a child â" English translation)
- Die GÃ¼nderode, 1840 (a fictionalized correspondence with her friend, the poet Karoline von GÃ¼nderrode (1780â"1806))
- Dies Buch gehÃ¶rt dem KÃ¶nig, 1843
- Clemens Brentanos FrÃ¼hlingskranz, aus Jugendbriefen ihm geflochten, wie er selbst schriftlich verlangte (Clemens Brentano's spring wreath, woven for him from the letters of his youth, as he requested in writing), 1844 (genuine letters to and from her brother)
- Ilius Pamphilius und die Ambrosia, 1848
- An die aufgelÃ¶ste PreuÃische Nationalversammlung, 1849
- with Gisela von Arnim: Das Leben der HochgrÃ¤fin Gritta von Rattenzuhausbeiuns, 1840
- Enid Gajek and Bernhard Gajek, eds., Bettine von Arnim, Hermann von PÃ¼ckler-Muskau,Â Â»Die Leidenschaft ist der SchlÃ¼ssel zur WeltÂ«. Briefwechsel 1832â"1844 (âPassion is the key to the world.â Correspondence 1832-1844), with commentary, Cotta, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-7681-9809-X
The German-American settlement of Bettina in the state of Texas was founded in 1847 and named by its progressive, idealistic founders after Bettina von Arnim. Located near the joint of Elm Creek and the Llano River, it lasted only a year. No trace of the Bettina community survives, though two of its three founders, Gustav Schleicherâ"later a U.S. congressman and namesake of Schleicher Countyâ"and Dr. Ferdinand Ludwig Herff, who in 1854 became the first surgeon to use anesthesia in Texas, subsequently became prominent. The community's third founder was Hermann Spiess.
Part of von Arnim's design for a colossal statue of Goethe, executed in marble by the sculptor Karl Steinhauser (1813â"1878), was displayed in the museum at Weimar in 1911.
In 2006 the Germam government turned KÃ¼nstlerhaus Schloss Wiepersdorf, von Armin's matrmonial home, into a literary institute. The institute contains a museum devoted to the von Armin's literary legacy.
- Works by or about Bettina von Arnim at Internet Archive
- Works by Bettina von Arnim at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)