An autobiography (from the Greek, Î±á½ÏÏÏ-autos self + Î²Î¯Î¿Ï-bios life + Î³ÏÎ¬ÏÎµÎ¹Î½-graphein to write) is a written account of the life of a person written by that person. In other words, it is the story that a person wrote about themselves.
Origin of the term
The word 'autobiography' was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical the Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid but condemned it as 'pedantic'; but its next recorded use was in its present sense by Robert Southey in 1809. The form of autobiography however goes back to antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography, however, may be based entirely on the writer's memory. Closely associated with autobiography (and sometimes difficult to precisely distinguish from it) is the form of memoir.
See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. -
Autobiography through the ages
The classical period: Apologia, oration, confession
In antiquity such works were typically entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's autobiography (first published in 1864) is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition.
The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography (Josephi Vita, c. 99) with self-praise, which is followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee.
The pagan rhetor Libanius (c. 314â"394) framed his life memoir (Oration I begun in 374) as one of his orations, not of a public kind, but of a literary kind that could not be aloud in privacy.
Augustine (354â"430) applied the title Confessions to his autobiographical work, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the same title in the 18th century, initiating the chain of confessional and sometimes racy and highly self-critical, autobiographies of the Romantic era and beyond.
In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Calamitatum of Peter Abelard, outstanding as an autobiographical document of its period.
The first autobiographical work in Islamic society was written in the late 11th century, by Abdallah ibn Buluggin, last Zirid king of Granada.
In the 15th century, Leonor LÃ³pez de CÃ³rdoba, a Spanish noblewoman, wrote her Memorias, which may be the first autobiography in Castillian.
ZÄhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad BÄbur,who founded the Mughal dynasty of South Asia kept a journal BÄburnÄma (Chagatai/Persian: Ø¨Ø§Ø¨Ø± ÙØ§Ù Ûâ; literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur") which was written between 1493 and 1529.
One of the first great autobiographies of the Renaissance is that of the sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini (1500â"1571), written between 1556 and 1558, and entitled by him simply Vita (Italian: Life). He declares at the start: "No matter what sort he is, everyone who has to his credit what are or really seem great achievements, if he cares for truth and goodness, ought to write the story of his own life in his own hand; but no one should venture on such a splendid undertaking before he is over forty." These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, and most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them.
Another autobiography of the period is De vita propria, by the Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer Gerolamo Cardano (1574).
The earliest known autobiography in English is the early 15th-century Book of Margery Kempe, describing among other things Kempe's pilgrimage to the Holy Land and visit to Rome. The book remained in manuscript and was not published until 1936.
Notable English autobiographies of the 17th century include those of Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1643, published 1764) and John Bunyan (Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, 1666).
A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography. While an autobiography typically focuses on the "life and times" of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish an account of their public exploits.
One early example is that of Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, also known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili (or Commentary on the Civil War) is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
Leonor LÃ³pez de CÃ³rdoba (1362â"1420) wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish. The English Civil War (1642â"1651) provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the same period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz (1614â"1679) and the Duc de Saint-Simon.
18th and 19th centuries
Notable 18th-century autobiographies in English include those of Edward Gibbon and Benjamin Franklin. Following the trend of Romanticism, which greatly emphasised the role and the nature of the individual, and in the footsteps of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Confessions, a more intimate form of autobiography, exploring the subject's emotions, came into fashion. An English example is William Hazlitt's Liber Amoris (1823), a painful examination of the writer's love-life.
With the rise of education, cheap newspapers and cheap printing, modern concepts of fame and celebrity began to develop, and the beneficiaries of this were not slow to cash in on this by producing autobiographies. It became the expectationâ"rather than the exceptionâ"that those in the public eye should write about themselvesâ"not only writers such as Charles Dickens (who also incorporated autobiographical elements in his novels) and Anthony Trollope, but also politicians (e.g. Henry Brooks Adams), philosophers (e.g. John Stuart Mill), churchmen such as Cardinal Newman, and entertainers such as P. T. Barnum. Increasingly, in accordance with romantic taste, these accounts also began to deal, amongst other topics, with aspects of childhood and upbringingâ"far removed from the principles of "Cellinian" autobiography.
20th and 21st centuries
From the 17th century onwards, "scandalous memoirs" by supposed libertines, serving a public taste for titillation, have been frequently published. Typically pseudonymous, they were (and are) largely works of fiction written by ghostwriters. So-called "autobiographies" of modern professional athletes and media celebritiesâ"and to a lesser extent about politicians, generally written by a ghostwriter, are routinely published. Some celebrities, such as Naomi Campbell, admit to not having read their "autobiographies".. Some sensationalist autobiographies such as James Frey's "A Million Little Pieces" have been publicly exposed as having embellished or fictionalized significant details of the authors' lives.
Autobiography has become an increasingly popular and widely accessible form. With the critical and commercial success in the United States of such memoirs as Angelaâs Ashes and The Color of Water, more and more people have been encouraged to try their hand at this genre.
Victims and opponents of totalitarian and other governmental regimes have been able to present striking critiques of these regimes through autobiographical accounts of their experience. Among such works are the writings of Primo Levi, one of many personal accounts of the Shoah. Similarly, there are many works detailing atrocities and malevolence of Communist regimes (e.g., Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope against Hope).
Nature of autobiography
Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inabilityâ"or unwillingnessâ"of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history.
The term "fictional autobiography" signifies novels about a fictional character written as though the character were writing their own autobiography, meaning that the character is the first-person narrator and that the novel addresses both internal and external experiences of the character. Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders is an early example. Charles Dickens' David Copperfield is another such classic, and J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte BrontÃ«'s Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, as noted on the front page of the original version. The term may also apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e.g., Robert Nye's Memoirs of Lord Byron.
- Autobiographical comics
- Autobiographical novel
- Autobiographical songs
- List of autobiographies
- Unreliable Narrator
Notes and references
- Barros, Carolyn (1998). Autobiography: Narrative of Transformation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Â
- Buckley, Jerome Hamilton (1994). The Turning Key: Autobiography and the Subjective Impulse Since 1800. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Â
- Lejeune, Philippe (1989). On Autobiography. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Â
- Olney, James (1998). Memory & Narrative: The Weave of Life-Writing. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Â
- Pascal, Roy (1960). Design and Truth in Autobiography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Â
- Reynolds, Dwight F., ed. (2001). Interpreting the Self: Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press.Â
- Wu, Pey-Yi (1990). The Confucian's Progress: Autobiographical Writings in Traditional China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Â
- Lerro, Menotti (2012). Raccontarsi in versi. La poesia autobiografica in Inghilterra e in Spagna (1950-1980). Rome: Carocci.Â
- Padva, Gilad (2014). Reinventing Lesbian Youth in Su Friedrich's Cinematic Autoqueerography Hide and Seek. In Padva, Gilad, Queer Nostalgia in Cinema and Pop Culture, pp.Â 123â"138. Basingstock, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-137-26633-0.