Eustace Clarence Mullins, Jr. (March 9, 1923Â â" February 2, 2010) was a populist American political writer, biographer, antisemite, and Holocaust denier. His best-known work is The Secrets of The Federal Reserve. David Randall has called Mullins "one of the world's leading conspiracy theorists."
Eustace Clarence Mullins, Jr. was born in Roanoke, Virginia, the third child of Eustace Clarence Mullins (1899â"1961) and his wife Jane Katherine Muse (1897â"1971). His father was a salesman in a retail clothing store. He was educated at Washington and Lee University, New York University, the University of North Dakota and the Institute of Contemporary Arts in Washington, D.C.
In December 1942 he enlisted in the military as a Warrant Officer at Charlottesville, Virginia. He was a veteran of the United States Army Air Forces, serving thirty-eight months during World War II.
In 1949 Mullins worked at the Institute for Contemporary Arts in Washington, D.C. where he met Ezra Pound's wife Dorothy who introduced him to her husband. Pound was at the time incarcerated in St. Elizabeths Hospital for the Mentally Ill. Mullins frequently visited the poet and for a time acted as secretary to him. He went on to write a biography about Pound, This Difficult Individual Ezra Pound (1961), which literary critic Ira Nadel describes as "prejudiced and often melodramatic". According to Mullins it was Pound who set him on the course of research that led to his writing The Secrets of The Federal Reserve.
He became a researcher at the Library of Congress in 1950 and worked with Senator Joseph McCarthy investigating Communist Party funding sources. He later stated that he believed McCarthy had "started to turn the tide against world communism". Shortly after his first book came out in 1952, he was discharged by the Library of Congress.
In 1956 Mullins sued his former employer, the American Petroleum Industries Committee (APIC), for breach of contract. He claimed that he had been hired in 1953 to engage in a sub rosa project to undermine Zionism. APIC denied Mullins's charge, stating that it was "preposterous and without foundation."
In the 1950s, Mullins began his career as an author writing for Conde McGinleyâs newspaper Common Sense, which promoted the second edition of his book on the Federal Reserve, entitled The Federal Reserve Conspiracy (1954). Around this time, he also wrote for Lyrl Clark Van Hyning's Chicago-based newsletter, Women's Voice. He was a member of the National Renaissance Party and wrote for its journal, The National Renaissance. In 1995, he was writing for Criminal Politics. Towards the end of his life, he wrote for Willis Carto's magazine the Barnes Review.
Mullins lived in Staunton, Virginia, in the house at 126 Madison Place where he grew up, from the mid 1970s through the end of his life.
Secrets of the Federal Reserve
In the late 1940s, when the poet Ezra Pound was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths Hospital on treason charges against the US, he corresponded with Mullins. In their correspondence, Mullins exclaimed "THE JEWS ARE BETRAYING US", in a letter written on Aryan League of America stationery. The two became friends and Mullins often visited the poet while he was detained. In his "Foreword" to The Secrets of the Federal Reserve Mullins explains the circumstances by which he came to write his investigation into the origins of the Federal Reserve System: "In 1949, while I was visiting Ezra Pound ... [he] asked me if I had ever heard of the Federal Reserve System. I replied that I had not, as of the age of 25. He then showed me a ten dollar bill marked "Federal Reserve Note" and asked me if I would do some research at the Library of Congress on the Federal Reserve System which had issued this bill."
Mullins told Pound that he had little interest in such a research project because he was working on a novel. "My initial research" wrote Mullins, "revealed evidence of an international banking group which had secretly planned the writing of the Federal Reserve Act and Congressâ enactment of the plan into law. These findings confirmed what Pound had long suspected. He said, "You must work on it as a detective story."
Mullins completed the manuscript during the course of 1950 when he began to seek a publisher. Eighteen publishers turned the book down without comment before the President of the Devin-Adair Publishing Company, Devin Garrett, told him, "I like your book but we can't print it...Neither can anybody else in New York. You may as well forget about getting the [...] book published."
Eventually the book was published by two other men who visited Pound during that period, John Kasper and David Horton, under the title Mullins on the Federal Reserve.
In Mullins on the Federal Reserve (1952), (the updated edition published in 1983 was called Secrets of the Federal Reserve) Mullins argued that there was a conspiracy among Paul Warburg, Edward Mandell House, Woodrow Wilson, J.P. Morgan, Benjamin Strong, Otto Kahn, the Rockefeller family, the Rothschild family, and other European and American bankers which resulted in the founding of the U.S. Federal Reserve System. He argued that the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 defies Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution by creating a "central bank of issue" for the United States. Mullins went on to claim that World War I, the Agricultural Depression of 1920, the Great Depression of 1929 were brought about by international banking interests in order to profit from conflict and economic instability. Mullins also cited Thomas Jefferson's staunch opposition to the establishment of a central bank in the United States.
In the 1983 edition of his book, he argued that Kuhn, Loeb & Co. and the House of Morgan were fronts for the Rothschilds. In this edition, he also outlined how financial interests connected to the J. Henry Schroder Company and the Dulles brothers financed Adolf Hitler (in contrast to the claims of his mentor, Ezra Pound, that Hitler was a sovereign who was completely against the interests of international finance. ). He also alleged that the Rothschilds were world monopolists. He furthermore claimed that most of the stock of member banks that owned stock in the Federal Reserve was owned by City of London bankers, since they owned much of the stock of the member banks. He attempted to trace stock ownership, as it changed hands via mergers and acquisitions, from the inception of the Federal Reserve in 1913 to the early 1980s.
In the last chapter of the book, he noted various Congressional investigations, and criticized the immense degree of power that these few banks who owned majority shares in the Federal Reserve possessed. He also criticized the Bilderberg Group, attacking it as an international consortium produced by the Rockefeller-Rothschild alliance. In an appendix to the book, he delved further into the City of London, and criticized the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, which he claimed helps to conduct psychological warfare on the citizens of Britain and the United States.
A central theme of Mullins' book is that the Federal Reserve allows bankers to monetize debt, creating it out of nothing by book entry, and thus they have enormous leverage over everyone else. Near the end of the book, he said of the Federal Reserve:
The Federal Reserve System is not Federal; it has no reserves; and it is not a system, but rather, a criminal syndicate. It is the product of criminal syndicalist activity of an international consortium of dynastic families comprising what the author terms "The World Order". The Federal Reserve system is a central bank operating in the United States. Although the student will find no such definition of a central bank in the textbooks of any university, the author has defined a central bank as follows: It is the dominant financial power of the country which harbors it. It is entirely private-owned, although it seeks to give the appearance of a governmental institution. It has the right to print and issue money, the traditional prerogative of monarchs. It is set up to provide financing for wars. It functions as a money monopoly having total power over all the money and credit of the people.
Eustace Mullins dedicated Secrets of the Federal Reserve to George Stimpson and Ezra Pound. It is Mullins's most widely known book. By the 1990s the book was broadly influential in American far-right movements.
Hitler and the Holocaust
His October, 1952 article "Adolf Hitler: An Appreciation" was mentioned in a report by the House Un-American Activities Committee. In it, he espoused anti-Semitic views and expressed the belief that America owes a debt to Hitler. The article first appeared in The National Renaissance, journal of the National Renaissance Party.
In a tract called The Secret Holocaust, Mullins stated that the accepted account of the Holocaust is implausible, calling it a cover story for Jewish-led Soviet massacres of Christians and anti-communists. In particular, Mullins argues that by the mid-1960s, in order to divert the world's attention away from this putative mass slaughter, "the Jews" had cooked up the story of the Holocaust, using "photographs of the bodies of their German victims, which are exhibited today in gruesome 'museums' in Germany as exhibits of dead Jews" as evidence for their claims.
The Biological Jew
In 1968, Mullins authored the tract The Biological Jew, which he claimed was an objective analysis of the forces behind the "decline" of Western Culture. He claimed that the main influence that people were overlooking in their analysis of world affairs was "parasitism".
The World Order
Michael Barkun describes Mullins' 1992 work The World Order: Our Secret Rulers as "a more openly anti-Semitic version of the Illuminati theory". He writes:
Like his mentor [Ezra Pound], Mullins sees the world's evil as a product of financial manipulation, in which Jews play a central role. But as an explanation of world, as opposed to modern, history, his conspiracist vision makes the Illuminati merely a link in a much longer change that extends back to the ancient Near East and forward to the nascent communist movement of the early Marx. Weishaupt himself is portrayed as a mere figurehead... Mullins sees the Illuminati as really run by Jews...".
Mullins was involved with a number of extremist right-wing and neofascist groups from the early 1950s through the 1990s. These included the National Association for the Advancement of White People and James H. Madole's organization, the National Renaissance Party (NRP). In the early 1950s Mullins regularly spoke in public at NRP demonstrations. His then-roommate was Matt Koehl, later the leader of the American Nazi Party but at that time head of the NRP's "Security Echelon Guard."
In the late 1950s Mullins also collaborated with self-proclaimed "scientific racist" Robert Kuttner, an associate editor of Charles Lee Smith's magazine, The Truth Seeker, in theorizing Kuttner's ideas on white supremacy. They cofounded the Institute for Biopolitics in 1958 in order to popularize Kuttner's theories and their precursors in the work of Morley Roberts.
By the mid-1990s Mullins was "considered a national leader" in the constitutional militia movement. He spoke regularly to militia groups across the United States during this time. The Secrets of the Federalist Reserve provided, in part, the theoretical underpinning of the movement's conspiracy theories about a secretive cabal of wealthy families controlling the international monetary system.
While on a speaking tour in Columbus, Ohio in January 2010, Mullins suffered a stroke. He died on February 2, 2010, aged 86, in Hockley, Texas.
- The Biological Jew (1967), Faith and Service Books, Staunton, Virginia
- The Curse of Canaan: A Demonology of History, Revelation Books, Staunton, Virginia, 1987, 242 pages, ISBN 0-9786517-1-5 (2007)
- The Federal Reserve Conspiracy, Common Sense, Union, New Jersey, 1954, 144 pages
- Mullins' New History of the Jews, The International Institute of Jewish Studies, Staunton, Virginia, 1978, reprint of 1968 edition. Quoting from the introduction: "... throughout the history of civilization, one particular problem of mankind has remained constant. In all of the vast records of peace and wars and rumors of wars, one great empire after another has had to come to grips with the same dilemmaÂ ... the Jews."
- Murder by Injection: The Medical Conspiracy Against America, The National Council for Medical Research, Staunton, Virginia, ISBN 0-88060-694-0
- My Life in Christ, Faith and Service Books, Aryan League of America Staunton, Virginia, 1968, 90 pages
- The Rape of Justice: America's Tribunals Exposed, Staunton, Virginia: National Commission for Judicial Reform, 1989
- The Secret History of the Atomic Bomb
- The Secrets of the Federal Reserve, 1952. Reprinted John McLaughlin, 1983, 208 pages, ISBN 0-9656492-1-0
- The Sedition Case, Sons Of Liberty, 1985, Metairie, Louisiana, 1985, Trade Paperback
- This Difficult Individual: Ezra Pound, Fleet Publishing Corporation, (1961) reprint, Noontide Press, ISBN 0-317-53248-0
- This Difficult Individual: Ezra Pound, Angriff Press: Hollywood, California, 1961. With black & white photos of Ezra Pound taken while incarcerated, 388 pages, cloth reprint (exactly as Fleet Press edition; bootlegged?)
- War! War! War!, Sons of Liberty, 1984, ISBN 0-89562-100-2
- Who Owns the TV Networks?, 1995, 4 pages
- A Writ for Martyrs, OTU Christ Church, 1985, Soft Cover, 223 pages
- The World Order: A Study in the Hegemony of Parasitism, Staunton, Virginia: Ezra Pound Institute, 1985, 217 pages
- The World Order: Our Secret Rulers, Staunton, Virginia: Ezra Pound Institute, 1992, 294 pages
- A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century
- Eustace Mullins's FBI files, obtained under the FOIA and hosted at the Internet Archive:
- Part 1
- Part 2
- Part 3
- Part 4
- New York City office files
- Richmond, Virginia office files
- Archive.org collection of radio interviews with Mullins
- Eustace Mullins Presents: The World Order (audio hosted at archive.org)
- The Magical Money Machine (48 minute video interview with Mullins on the Federal Reserve, hosted at archive.org)
- HUAC report on Neo-Fascist groups, including material on Mullins
- Eustace Mullins Memorial at Find A Grave
- Tribute site with his complete works